Sarhad J. Agric. Vol.28, No.3, 2012 EFFECT OF ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE EXTRACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BALOCHI LAMBS
ZILE HUMA*, MAJED RAFEEQ*, MASROOR AHMAD BAJWA*,
MOHAMMAD MASOOD TARIQ*, NADEEM RASHID* and ABDUL JABBAR TANWEER**
* Centre for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology, University of Balochistan, Quetta–** Gomal College of Veterinary Sciences,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan – Pakistan.ABSTRACT The effect of (Bospro®) an Aspergillusoryzae (A. oryzae) extract on the performance of Balochi lambswas studied at CASVAB, University of Balochistan, Pakistan during 2009. Lambs (n=20) were randomlyselected, ear tagged and divided in to four groups comprising five lambs in each group. The trial was carriedout for 12 week. Bospro® was given @ 30, 40 and 50 g/h/d mixed with the ration to groups A, B and C,respectively; while group D was treated as control. There was no significant difference in initial live bodyweight between groups (P>0.05). The results of the feeding trial over the twelve weeks period revealed thatgroup B and C showed significantly higher weight gain (10.96±0.38kg and 10.51±0.56kg) and better FCR(4.04±0.20 and 3.85±0.14) respectively among all the groups (P<0.05). Group D exhibited least increase inbody weight (6.78±0.24kg). Average daily gain for the groups A, B, C and D was (114.0±0.004, 125.0±0.007,131.0±0.005 and 81.0± 0.22g) respectively. The results indicated the positive effect of the A. oryzae extract onthe weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the Balochi lambs.Key Word: AspergillusOryzae Extract, Balochi lambs, growth performance, weight gain. Citation: Huma, Z., M. Rafeeq, M.A. Bajwa, M.M. Tariq, N. Rashid and A.J. Tanweer. 2012. Effect of Aspergillusoryzae extract on the performance of Balochi lambs. Sarhad J. Agric. 28(3):465-468
One of the most serious factors affecting the production of livestock in Balochistan is nutrition. Due to
poor range lands animals are generally deficient in protein, energy, minerals and vitamins limiting the
productivity of livestock. Open range lands have been increasing in areas as common range lands have
undergone degradation by their owners (Buzdaret al., 1989; Khan, 1991; FAO, 2003). The second most
important force after population growth is the fact of rise in income, increase in the demand of livestock
products (Shafiq and Kakar, 2006; Iqbalet al., 2007) and it would have great impact on the rate of demand of
livestock products (Buzdaret al., 1989). It can be clearly understood that this increased demand can only be
fulfilled from improved productivity by the virtue of long term and short term measures, while growth
promoters could be use as a tool to enhance productivity.
The growth promoting properties of anti microbial agents and their extract in farm animals were
revealed by Stokstad and Juke (1949) and suggested that residual tetracycline worked as growth promoter. Later
Leatherwood et al. (1960) reported the effect of dietary enzyme supplements on the ruminant feed stuff
utilization and performance but the results obtained were inconsistent. Later Gassner and Wuethrich, (1994)
reported that human health can either be affected directly through residues of an antibiotic in meat, which may
cause side-effects, or indirectly, through the selection of antibiotic resistance determinants that may spread to a
Thus in developing countries where livestock sector plays an important role in agricultural growth as
large number of people involved in the production, trade and processing of livestock products. The major
challenge is to find ways and means to encourage agro-pastoralists in semi-arid regions to get benefit of
productions potential and market opportunities. That could only be justified when maximum out put is gained
while costly feed is provided to the stock. The aim of current study is to provide another link to enhance the
production by using growth promoter Bosopro® (AspergillusOryzae fermentation extracts) in the ration of
sheep in terms of maximum feed utilization and weight gain. ZileHuma et al. Effect of Aspergillusoryzaeextract on the performance of Balochi Lambs… MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was carried out at centre for advanced studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology
(CASVAB), University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistanduring 2009. A survey was conducted in the adjoining
areas of District Quetta. Seven villages and fifteen households of each village were randomly selected and tool
of participatory approach was used for the collection of data regarding feeding, production system, productive
and reproductive performance of existing sheep breeds of the area. Since agriculture is practiced on very meager
area of the district and availability of good quality fodder is either limited or not available because of
Thereafter a lamb fattening experiment was conducted at CASVAB, Quetta for twelve weeks (April to
July 2009). The experiment involved 20 male lambs of Balochi breed one year of age. Animals were dewormed,
ear tagged and vaccinated as per schedule. All the lambs were initially weighed on day one of experiment and
randomly divided into four groups with five sheep in each group. The sheep were individually weighed weekly
at same time before morning feeding. Single concentrate mix was prepared for the experiment and 500g/d/h
along with 3kg green and 0.5kg wheat straw was allocated throughout the experimental period. The ingredient
composition and calculated nutrient composition of the concentrate ration is presented in table I. The treatment
groups ASP-30, ASP-40 and ASP-50 were given Bospro® @ 30, 40 and 50 g/d/h mix with the concentrate
ration respectively and forth group was treated as control (withoutBospro). The data on weight gain was
recorded for individual sheep on weekly basis. The data collected and analyzed using completely randomized
design (CRD) technique. Difference between means of treatments was analyzed by least significance difference
(LSD) test using the “SPSS 16” computer software. Table IIngredient and nutrient composition of experimental concentrate mix ration Ingredients Quantity Nutrient Composition*
*Nutrient composition calculated using NRC feed stuff composition tables
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Livestock survey was conducted in the adjoining areas of District Quetta. It was observed that farmers
are raising Balochi, Beverigh and Mengali sheep breeds. Farmers are keeping these animals for meat, milk,
wool and cope up their livelihood from these products. Further, it was observed that farmers have adopted
sedentary (25%), transhumant’s (50%) and nomadic (25%) production system. Breeding is carried out
preferably during months of October and November. Source of feeding is mainly grazing in the orchards and
range land. These different production systems are prevailing because of the harsh weather conditions and
availability of feed during winter months (Tariq et al., 2011). The available resources in terms of land play
important role to adopt sedentary production system. Kakaret al. (2009) reported that more than one system of
production may be practiced in the same village depending on the feed and water availability. The breeding
system is based on local wisdom enable them to get lambs during spring season when favorable temperature is
reached hence increase the lamb survival rate and availability of forage.
The fattening trial conducted to determine the effect of different levels of commercial growth promoter
Bosopro®, containing the fermentation extracts of A. oryzae on the productive performance of sheep in terms of
weight gain. The results of initial weight, final weight, total weight gain, average daily weight gain and feed
conversion ratio (FCR) of the experimental groups is presented in Table II, no significance difference was found
in the initial weights (P>0.05). The final weights are showing improvement in the weight gain after twelve week
of trial. Treatment groups ASP-40 and ASP-50 given the Bosopro® @ 40 and 50g/d/h respectively shown
significantly higher weight gain (10.96±0.38 and 10.51±0.56) among all the groups (P>0.05). However,
significant difference was found from group ASP-30 and control (P<0.05). While Control group has shown the
Sarhad J. Agric. Vol.28, No.3, 2012
least increase in the weight gain (6.78±0.24) as no additive was provided to the control group.The group ASP-
50 showed better FCR (3.85±0.14) and gradually it was increasing among the groups with lesser amount of
growth promoter; while the control group exhibited the highest FCR (6.22±0.22). The results of first week
showed an average weight gain of 1.99±0.46kg, 1.248±0.17kg, 2.35±0.4kg and 1.33±0.28kg for group ASP-30,
ASP-40, ASP-50 and control group respectively and the change in live weight throughout the experiment is
depicted in Figure 1. The results further showed that the performance of lambs in control group had
comparatively poor feed efficiency and weight gain, while the groups being provided growth promoter was
better than that of the control (P<0.05). An increase of 25.1, 27.9, 29.1, and 17.9% in weight gain by groups
ASP-30, ASP-40, ASP-50 and control was observed over the experimental period, respectively.
The performance of the lambs in control group was quite low as compare to weight gain of the
treatment groups given growth promoter. It was observed that the group C given 50g/h/d of growth promoter
shows the highest weight gain (131g/d/h), exhibiting the noticeable effect of growth promoter on the
performance of Balochi lambs. In present study the average daily weight gain of group D was 80g/d/h. In other
studies by Muniret al. (2008) and Rafeeqet al. (2010) reported 66g and 72g weight gain per day offered
different quantities of feed over long period of time in different experiments.The productive and reproductive
performance of sheep depends on many factors, especially genetic potential of a particular breed, availability of
nutrition and environmental factors (Kochapakdeeet al., 1994). Although, there is an availability of range of
products as growth promoters, but still there are some limitations to the use of these products as growth
promoters of hormonal origin seem to have promising results, along with some disadvantages, especially those
which have been found to have adverse effects on human beings. Another disadvantage is the cost of the growth
promoter (Rafeeqet al., 2010).
The results of present study disclosed the importance of fermentation extracts of A. oryzae and confirm
the findings of Burroughs et al. (1960) reported the positive effect of growth promoter in the ruminant feed stuff
utilization and performance with a weight gain of 7% in cattle. Similarly, Martin and Nisbat (1990) reported that
yeast extract stimulated the growth of normal micro flora and release of nutrient found bounded in roughages. In
other studies Nisbat and Martin (1990) determined the effects of A. oryzae fermentation extract on growth
through increased production of acetate, propionate and total volatile fatty acids, so in agreement to the present
investigation. Dawson and Hopkins (1991) and Aslanet al. (1995) suggested that fungal cultures improve the
use of lactate by the ruminal organism Selenomonasruminantium by providing a source of dicarboxcylic acids
and other growth factors. Table IIEffect of Aspergillusoryzae extract on growth performance of lambs (Mean±SEM) Treatment groups performance Initial Weight (Kg) Final Weight (Kg) Weight gain (Kg) Av. daily gain (gm)
*A; ASP-30 (A. oryzae extract @ 30 g/h/d), B: ASP-40 (A. oryzae extract @ 40 g/h/d), C: ASP-50 (A. oryzae
extract @ 50 g/h/d) and D: Control (with outA. oryzae extract). Mean in the same row with different superscripts
significantly differ from each other (P<0.05)
Fig.1. Average Weekly live weight of treatment groups over the experimental period (kg) ZileHuma et al. Effect of Aspergillusoryzaeextract on the performance of Balochi Lambs… CONCLUSION
In conclusion the farmers have adopted different production systems depending upon their available
resources and according to the environmental conditions. The feeding trial concluded that inclusion of Bospro®
(A. oryzae extract) as a growth promoter in the feed illustrates significant increase in the weight gain and better
feed efficiency performance of the lambs. This property of the Bospro® might be use full in the commercial
farming where there is relatively rapid increase in the weight and better feed utilization by the animal is an
Aslan, V.S., M. Thamsborg, R.J. Jorgensen and A. Basse. 1995. Induced acute ruminal acidosis in goats treated with
yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bicarbonate. Acta. Vet. Scand. 36: 65-68.
Burroughs, W., W. Woods, S.A. Ewing, J. Greig and B. Theurer. 1960. Enzyme Additions to Fattening Cattle Rations.
Buzdar, N., J.G. Nagy, Sabir, G. Farid and J.D.H. Keatinge. 1989. Animal rising in highland Balochistan: a socio-
economic perspective, MART/ AZR, Res. Report No. 50, Arid Zone Res. Inst., Quetta, Pakistan.
Dawson, K.A. and D.M. Hopkins. 1991. Differential effects of live yeast on the cellulolytic activities of anaerobic
ruminal bacteria. J. Anim. Sci. 69 (Suppl. 1):531.
FAO. 2003.Action plan for livestock marketing systems in Pakistan. TCP/PAK/0168: Livestock Action Plan. ASI,
Fuller, R. 1992. History and development of probiotics.In Fuller R. (Ed), Probiotics.The Scientific Basis.Chapman
Gassner, B. and A. Wuethrich. 1994. Pharmacokinetic and toxicological aspects of the medication of beef-type calves
with an oral formulation of chloramphenicol palmitate. J. Vet. Pharm. Therapeutics. 17: 279-83.
Kakar,M.A, I.B. Marghazani, M.E. Kakar, M.A. Khan, Hamdullah and A. Nawaz. 2009. Present and Future Prospects
of Buffaloes in Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool.9: 511-515.
Khan, A.R. 1991.Marketing of livestock and their products in Pakistan.Progress.Farming. 11: 127–31. Kochapakdee S.W., S. Pralokarn, A.S. Laapetchara and B.W. Norton. 1994. Grazing management studies with Thai
goats. Productivity of female goats grazing newly established pasture with varying levels of supplementary
feeding. Asian Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 7: 289-293.
Leatherwood, J.M., R.D. Mochrie and W.E. Thomas. 1960. Some effects of a supplementary cellulase preparation on
feed utilization by ruminants. J. Dairy Sci. 43: 1460.
Martin, S.A. and D.J. Nisbet. 1990. Effects of AspergillusOryzae fermentation extract on fermentation of amino acids,
bermudagrass and starch by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro. J. Anim. Sci. 68: 2142-2149.
Munir, M., A.W. Jarsa, and S. Rafique. 2008. Lamb production under different systems of management on rangelands
of Balochistan. Pak. Vet. J. 28 (2): 68-70.
Nisbet, D.J. and S.A. Martin. 1990. Effect of Dicarboxylic Acids and AspergillusOryzae Fermentation Extract on
Lactate Uptake by the Ruminal Bacterium Selenomonasruminantium. App. Envir. Microb. 56(11): 3515 –
Rafeeq M., M.M. Tariq, M.A. Bajwa. 2010. Comparative study to estimate the productive performance of different
sheep breeds of Balochistan in semi intensive conditions. ABAH Bioflux. 2(1): 35-38.
Shafiq, M. and M.A. Kakar. 2006. Current livestock marketing and its future prospects for the economic development
of Balochistan-Pakistan.Int’l. J. Agric.Bio. 8: 885-895.
Stokstad, E.L.R. and T.H. Jukes. 1949. Further observations on the animal protein factor, Proceedings of the Society
of Biological and Experimental Medicine. 73: 523–528.
Tariq, M.M., M.A. Bajwa, F.Abbas, E. Eyduran and M.A. Awan. 2011. Some morphological, fertility and growth
traits for Mengali sheep of Balochistan Pakistan. Igdir Univ. J. Instt. Sci. Tech. 1: 63-68.
Wiedmeier R.D., M.J. Arambel,and J.L. Walters. 1987. Effect of Yeast Culture and Aspergillusoryzae Fermentation
Extract on Ruminal Characteristics and Nutrient Digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 70(10): 2063-2068.
Pregunta LA ERUPCIÓN TARDÍA DE LOS DIENTES PERMANENTES ESTA RELACIONADA CON:LA MALA POSTURA DEL CUERPO EN LOS TRATAMIENTOS ODONTOLÓGICOS VA A ORIGINAR:UN MESIODENT DONDE REGULARMENTE SE UBICA?LA FASE QUE ES EMPLEADA PARA ELIMINAR MAL POSICIONES DENTARIAS EN UN TRATAMIENTO ORTODONTICO SE LLAMA:CUANDO SE HACE UNA EXPOSICIÓN PULPAR ACCIDENTALMENTE, CUANDO ESTAMOS OPERANDO, SE DEBE EL LABIO