Sarhad J. Agric. Vol.28, No.3, 2012
ZILE HUMA*, MAJED RAFEEQ*, MASROOR AHMAD BAJWA*, MOHAMMAD MASOOD TARIQ*, NADEEM RASHID* and ABDUL JABBAR TANWEER** * Centre for Advanced Studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology, University of Balochistan, Quetta– ** Gomal College of Veterinary Sciences,Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan – Pakistan. ABSTRACT
The effect of (Bospro®) an Aspergillusoryzae (A. oryzae) extract on the performance of Balochi lambs was studied at CASVAB, University of Balochistan, Pakistan during 2009. Lambs (n=20) were randomly selected, ear tagged and divided in to four groups comprising five lambs in each group. The trial was carried out for 12 week. Bospro® was given @ 30, 40 and 50 g/h/d mixed with the ration to groups A, B and C, respectively; while group D was treated as control. There was no significant difference in initial live body weight between groups (P>0.05). The results of the feeding trial over the twelve weeks period revealed that group B and C showed significantly higher weight gain (10.96±0.38kg and 10.51±0.56kg) and better FCR (4.04±0.20 and 3.85±0.14) respectively among all the groups (P<0.05). Group D exhibited least increase in body weight (6.78±0.24kg). Average daily gain for the groups A, B, C and D was (114.0±0.004, 125.0±0.007, 131.0±0.005 and 81.0± 0.22g) respectively. The results indicated the positive effect of the A. oryzae extract on the weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the Balochi lambs. Key Word: AspergillusOryzae Extract, Balochi lambs, growth performance, weight gain.
Citation: Huma, Z., M. Rafeeq, M.A. Bajwa, M.M. Tariq, N. Rashid and A.J. Tanweer. 2012. Effect of
Aspergillusoryzae extract on the performance of Balochi lambs. Sarhad J. Agric. 28(3):465-468 INTRODUCTION
One of the most serious factors affecting the production of livestock in Balochistan is nutrition. Due to poor range lands animals are generally deficient in protein, energy, minerals and vitamins limiting the productivity of livestock. Open range lands have been increasing in areas as common range lands have undergone degradation by their owners (Buzdaret al., 1989; Khan, 1991; FAO, 2003). The second most important force after population growth is the fact of rise in income, increase in the demand of livestock products (Shafiq and Kakar, 2006; Iqbalet al., 2007) and it would have great impact on the rate of demand of livestock products (Buzdaret al., 1989). It can be clearly understood that this increased demand can only be fulfilled from improved productivity by the virtue of long term and short term measures, while growth promoters could be use as a tool to enhance productivity.
The growth promoting properties of anti microbial agents and their extract in farm animals were revealed by Stokstad and Juke (1949) and suggested that residual tetracycline worked as growth promoter. Later Leatherwood et al. (1960) reported the effect of dietary enzyme supplements on the ruminant feed stuff utilization and performance but the results obtained were inconsistent. Later Gassner and Wuethrich, (1994) reported that human health can either be affected directly through residues of an antibiotic in meat, which may cause side-effects, or indirectly, through the selection of antibiotic resistance determinants that may spread to a Thus in developing countries where livestock sector plays an important role in agricultural growth as large number of people involved in the production, trade and processing of livestock products. The major challenge is to find ways and means to encourage agro-pastoralists in semi-arid regions to get benefit of productions potential and market opportunities. That could only be justified when maximum out put is gained while costly feed is provided to the stock. The aim of current study is to provide another link to enhance the production by using growth promoter Bosopro® (AspergillusOryzae fermentation extracts) in the ration of sheep in terms of maximum feed utilization and weight gain.
ZileHuma et al. Effect of Aspergillusoryzaeextract on the performance of Balochi Lambs…
The study was carried out at centre for advanced studies in Vaccinology and Biotechnology (CASVAB), University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistanduring 2009. A survey was conducted in the adjoining areas of District Quetta. Seven villages and fifteen households of each village were randomly selected and tool of participatory approach was used for the collection of data regarding feeding, production system, productive and reproductive performance of existing sheep breeds of the area. Since agriculture is practiced on very meager area of the district and availability of good quality fodder is either limited or not available because of Thereafter a lamb fattening experiment was conducted at CASVAB, Quetta for twelve weeks (April to July 2009). The experiment involved 20 male lambs of Balochi breed one year of age. Animals were dewormed, ear tagged and vaccinated as per schedule. All the lambs were initially weighed on day one of experiment and randomly divided into four groups with five sheep in each group. The sheep were individually weighed weekly at same time before morning feeding. Single concentrate mix was prepared for the experiment and 500g/d/h along with 3kg green and 0.5kg wheat straw was allocated throughout the experimental period. The ingredient composition and calculated nutrient composition of the concentrate ration is presented in table I. The treatment groups ASP-30, ASP-40 and ASP-50 were given Bospro® @ 30, 40 and 50 g/d/h mix with the concentrate ration respectively and forth group was treated as control (withoutBospro). The data on weight gain was recorded for individual sheep on weekly basis. The data collected and analyzed using completely randomized design (CRD) technique. Difference between means of treatments was analyzed by least significance difference (LSD) test using the “SPSS 16” computer software.
Table IIngredient and nutrient composition of experimental concentrate mix ration
Nutrient Composition*
*Nutrient composition calculated using NRC feed stuff composition tables RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Livestock survey was conducted in the adjoining areas of District Quetta. It was observed that farmers are raising Balochi, Beverigh and Mengali sheep breeds. Farmers are keeping these animals for meat, milk, wool and cope up their livelihood from these products. Further, it was observed that farmers have adopted sedentary (25%), transhumant’s (50%) and nomadic (25%) production system. Breeding is carried out preferably during months of October and November. Source of feeding is mainly grazing in the orchards and range land. These different production systems are prevailing because of the harsh weather conditions and availability of feed during winter months (Tariq et al., 2011). The available resources in terms of land play important role to adopt sedentary production system. Kakaret al. (2009) reported that more than one system of production may be practiced in the same village depending on the feed and water availability. The breeding system is based on local wisdom enable them to get lambs during spring season when favorable temperature is reached hence increase the lamb survival rate and availability of forage.
The fattening trial conducted to determine the effect of different levels of commercial growth promoter Bosopro®, containing the fermentation extracts of A. oryzae on the productive performance of sheep in terms of weight gain. The results of initial weight, final weight, total weight gain, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the experimental groups is presented in Table II, no significance difference was found in the initial weights (P>0.05). The final weights are showing improvement in the weight gain after twelve week of trial. Treatment groups ASP-40 and ASP-50 given the Bosopro® @ 40 and 50g/d/h respectively shown significantly higher weight gain (10.96±0.38 and 10.51±0.56) among all the groups (P>0.05). However, significant difference was found from group ASP-30 and control (P<0.05). While Control group has shown the Sarhad J. Agric. Vol.28, No.3, 2012
least increase in the weight gain (6.78±0.24) as no additive was provided to the control group.The group ASP- 50 showed better FCR (3.85±0.14) and gradually it was increasing among the groups with lesser amount of growth promoter; while the control group exhibited the highest FCR (6.22±0.22). The results of first week showed an average weight gain of 1.99±0.46kg, 1.248±0.17kg, 2.35±0.4kg and 1.33±0.28kg for group ASP-30, ASP-40, ASP-50 and control group respectively and the change in live weight throughout the experiment is depicted in Figure 1. The results further showed that the performance of lambs in control group had comparatively poor feed efficiency and weight gain, while the groups being provided growth promoter was better than that of the control (P<0.05). An increase of 25.1, 27.9, 29.1, and 17.9% in weight gain by groups ASP-30, ASP-40, ASP-50 and control was observed over the experimental period, respectively.
The performance of the lambs in control group was quite low as compare to weight gain of the treatment groups given growth promoter. It was observed that the group C given 50g/h/d of growth promoter shows the highest weight gain (131g/d/h), exhibiting the noticeable effect of growth promoter on the performance of Balochi lambs. In present study the average daily weight gain of group D was 80g/d/h. In other studies by Muniret al. (2008) and Rafeeqet al. (2010) reported 66g and 72g weight gain per day offered different quantities of feed over long period of time in different experiments.The productive and reproductive performance of sheep depends on many factors, especially genetic potential of a particular breed, availability of nutrition and environmental factors (Kochapakdeeet al., 1994). Although, there is an availability of range of products as growth promoters, but still there are some limitations to the use of these products as growth promoters of hormonal origin seem to have promising results, along with some disadvantages, especially those which have been found to have adverse effects on human beings. Another disadvantage is the cost of the growth promoter (Rafeeqet al., 2010).
The results of present study disclosed the importance of fermentation extracts of A. oryzae and confirm the findings of Burroughs et al. (1960) reported the positive effect of growth promoter in the ruminant feed stuff utilization and performance with a weight gain of 7% in cattle. Similarly, Martin and Nisbat (1990) reported that yeast extract stimulated the growth of normal micro flora and release of nutrient found bounded in roughages. In other studies Nisbat and Martin (1990) determined the effects of A. oryzae fermentation extract on growth through increased production of acetate, propionate and total volatile fatty acids, so in agreement to the present investigation. Dawson and Hopkins (1991) and Aslanet al. (1995) suggested that fungal cultures improve the use of lactate by the ruminal organism Selenomonasruminantium by providing a source of dicarboxcylic acids and other growth factors.
Table IIEffect of Aspergillusoryzae extract on growth performance of lambs (Mean±SEM)
Treatment groups
Initial Weight (Kg)
Final Weight (Kg)
Weight gain (Kg)
Av. daily gain (gm)
*A; ASP-30 (A. oryzae extract @ 30 g/h/d), B: ASP-40 (A. oryzae extract @ 40 g/h/d), C: ASP-50 (A. oryzae extract @ 50 g/h/d) and D: Control (with outA. oryzae extract). Mean in the same row with different superscripts significantly differ from each other (P<0.05) Fig.1. Average Weekly live weight of treatment groups over the experimental period (kg)
ZileHuma et al. Effect of Aspergillusoryzaeextract on the performance of Balochi Lambs…
In conclusion the farmers have adopted different production systems depending upon their available resources and according to the environmental conditions. The feeding trial concluded that inclusion of Bospro® (A. oryzae extract) as a growth promoter in the feed illustrates significant increase in the weight gain and better feed efficiency performance of the lambs. This property of the Bospro® might be use full in the commercial farming where there is relatively rapid increase in the weight and better feed utilization by the animal is an REFERENCES
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