Microsoft word - traumatic brain injury signs and symptoms _2_.doc

Traumatic Brain Injury and Other Brain Injury: Some Basic Facts and Possible Effects Epidemiology of TBI:
Males are twice as likely to experience injury as females Second most affected group: age 75 or older Third most affected group: age 5 or younger Common Causes of TBI or Other Brain Injuries:
(Can involve directs blow to the head or rapid acceleration and deceleration)
Motor vehicle accidents; bicycle accidents; pedestrian accidents (e.g. firearms, assault, child abuse, Shaken Baby syndrome) Toxic exposures (leads, solvents, organophosphates) Non-impact motor vehicle accidents (e.g. whiplash Fetal alcohol exposure, fetal dilantin syndrome Possible Medical Symptoms Following a Brain Injury:
Lethargy (sluggish, sleepy, gets tired easily) Ringing in the ears, changes in ability to hear Poor coordination, weakness, difficulty moving body parts, paralysis Difficulty with thinking (trouble “thinking straight”) Inappropriate emotional reactions Doesn’t remember what happened before the injury ▪ assess length of memory gap; was it minutes, hours, days before the incident? Post traumatic amnesia: when did they first regain awareness and memory? Reduced Glasgow coma scale (score at 13 or below?) General List of Possible Signs and Symptoms of Brain Injury
Impulsive, doesn’t take time to think Has trouble focusing on important details, gets distracted by irrelevant things Has trouble keeping track of ideas, gets lost in conversations Has trouble following directions “Scatterbrained, ” disorganized Can’t remember the rules when playing games Has trouble coming up with plans (e.g. for getting dressed in the morning, doing chores) When meets an obstacle, does nothing or gets easily frustrated Repeats the same thing/does the same thing over and over, even if it doesn’t work/help Is distractible, restless Overly friendly with strangers Acts immature Socially inappropriate, talks too loud, interrupts Is suspicious, paranoid Won’t take no, pushes the limits, has to be told the same thing over and over again Problems in Particular Areas:
Memory, organization and attention problems
Doesn’t remember basic facts (names, school room numbers, phone numbers, addresses) Can’t even tell you what happened that morning Reads things and can’t tell you what he/she read Can’t remember what he/she studied the night before Is told something over and over, but it goes in one ear and out the other Can’t find things, remember where he/she put them Has trouble keeping track of ideas, gets lost in conversations “Can’t see the forest for the trees” Has trouble focusing on important details, gets distracted by irrelevant things Puts stuff away and can’t find it “Scatterbrained, ” disorganized Can’t remember the rules when playing games Is distractible, restless Gets lost in the small stuff, can’t see the big picture Has trouble making a decision Can’t keep track of things Has trouble with changes, adjusting to new situations Overstimulation problems (inhibition difficulties, low frustration tolerance, affect

Seems impulsive Doesn’t take time to think / doesn’t think before he/she acts When meets an obstacle, gets easily frustrated Is unpredictable Is easily irritated, agitated Initiation problems
Gets “stuck” on one approach or solution, does the same thing over and over again Seems apathetic, doesn’t care Doesn’t seem motivated, doesn’t take initiative Is shy, withdrawn Has frequent aches and pains and physical complaints: stomach and headaches, fatigue Is slow in responding; doesn’t seem to take things in like s/he used to, others do Social and interpersonal problems
Doesn’t understand the effect of his/her behavior on others Others complain he/she is “selfish” or “uncaring” – doesn’t “get it” Acts too familiar, like he/she has known someone forever Socially inappropriate, e.g. talks too loud, interrupts Won’t take no, pushes the limits, has to be told the same thing over and over again Is unpredictable, erratic Is suspicious, paranoid Acts sexually provocative, seems preoccupied with sexual matters Won’t take no for an answer, pushes the limits, has to be told over and over again Has poor self control Has difficulty with peers, has few friends Doesn’t seem to understand what is socially appropriate, what others expect Overseer Problems
Has trouble taking feedback, seeing someone else’s point of view Seem rigid in his/her thoughts, is inflexible in his/her ideas Doesn’t have an understanding of what others think about him/her Doesn’t understand his/her own problems Has trouble taking information from one situation and using it to understand another Focuses on the here and now, has trouble looking or planning ahead “Lives for the moment,” does not have long-term plans


Microsoft word - depresión en adoslescentes_villafrade.doc

DEPRESIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES Una cruz que no llega sola. (Artículo publicado en la revista “Mujer” del diario “La Tercera”, Chile) La depresión se está presentando cada vez a más temprana edad y con mayor frecuencia acompañada generalmente de otros trastornos, lo que toma por sorpresa a los padres y a la sociedad. Faltan siquiatras especializados; se abusa de los medicamen

Contents Introduction How it spread how is it infectious Abstract Tuberculosis can affect virtually any organ system in the body andcan be devastating if left untreated and it is becoming infectious thantherapies, Tuberculosis symptoms develops after the bacteria multiplyand people start to feel chest pain, coughing up blood-tinged phlem,excessive sweating especially at night, fati

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