Prevention of running injuries

 Introduction  Warm-up and Stretching  Running Injuries  Causes - foot mechanics, shoes, biomechanics of  Common running injuries  Prevention and treatment   Important for increasing body temp., stretching ligaments and muscles, and exciting the nervous system.   General y, a warm-up should be related to the activity   It is advised that static prolonged stretching - although important, should be left to the end of your run in the cool-down phase.   Static prolonged stretching in a warm-up wil actual y dampen the nervous system therefore affecting agility, speed, co-ordination and subsequent risk of injury   Therefore, it is advised to perform a “dynamic warm-up”   Although, for those less flexible, starting with some prolonged stretching midway through the warm-up wil   List of recommended movements in the “dynamic warm-   Shoulder circles   Body twists   Side bends   Jumping jacks   Walking knee tucks   Kick backs on the spot   Jogging on the spot  Proper footwear necessary to maintain correct posture of foot and minimize external stress - over pronation and  Over-pronation is excessive flattening of the arch through the mid to late portion of the walking cycle  Over-pronation leads to decreased running efficiency and increased strain on the foot, knee, hip, and back  Supination relates to a higher arch and resultant increased load to the outside of the foot  Improper foot mechanics can be corrected via exercise,  Important to identify your foot type and use appropriate shoes in order to minimize injury risk   Motion control - excessive over-pronators   Stability - some degree of over-pronation   Cushioning - supinated foot  Everyone has a different foot, make sure one of the   Foot, ankle, knee, hip, and pelvis al need to be working properly to minimize strain and prevent injury   A fault in any of the biomechanics causes an altered running pattern and undue stress on the surrounding   Most common biomechanical fault in the body is the   This results in over-pronation of the foot, internal twisting of the knee and hip, and associated rotations of the   Altered biomechanics causes muscle imbalances and  Muscle imbalance is when specific muscles differ in strength or flexibility based on their  Due to altered mechanics where specific  Over time this imbalance creates wear and tear to joints and ligaments and causes injury,  Identifying altered biomechanics important for  Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome  Patel o-femoral Syndrome  Shin Splints  Plantar Fasciitis  Iliotibial Band(ITB) Friction Syndrome  A.K.A. - “Runner’s Knee”  Inflammation of the ITB at the outside of the knee  Caused by altered biomechanics of the hip and knee  Typical y painful mid way through the run and  Sharp pain local y to the outside of the knee with  Inflammation of the kneecap undersurface due to  Poor tracking of the kneecap results in abnormal  Resultant pain around kneecap with repetitive weightbearing activities (I.e. running, walking, stairs, squatting)  Better with rest from activity and ice  Inflammation of the Tibialis Posterior muscle where it  Abnormal foot mechanics (over-pronation) main  Pain along the inner part of the shin with possible  Early treatment with ice massage and rest to  Inflammation of the plantar fascia of the foot at the  Increased tension on the plantar fascia causes it to pul at the heel resulting in inflammation and possible tearing  Altered foot mechanics, poor footwear, tight muscles, and training errors al possible causes of injury  Worse in morning(first steps out of bed), slowly Running Injuries - Prevention and Treatment  Early Warning Signs of Injury  Minor aches and pains persistent after run  Soft tissue or joint swel ing  Lasting tenderness on palpation days after run  Loss of joint range of motion or stride  RICE - rest, ice, compress, elevation  Seek professional assistance  Important to identify the cause therefore gait analysis or biomechanical evaluation may be necessary  Here is a list of things to do for prevention:  Keep a daily log  Proper sleep for tissue repair, rest from running when  Balanced diet - consult your coach or dietician to ensure you are meeting the demands of your training  Dynamic warm-up prior to run  Static stretching in cool down phase  Cross training and muscle strengthening to balance  Proper footwear - consult with the experts at the  Strong glute muscles are important for biomechanical balance of the hip and knee  During running cycle, glutes responsible for external y rotating leg and keeping the leg  Consists of three muscles: Gluteus Maximus,  Problematic in people due to daily postures from sitting - muscle becomes de-activated and weak  One Simple Exercise to Train the Glute Muscles:  Standing - hold arms out in front of body at shoulder level with smal weight in hands (soup can or water bottle). Feet shoulder width apart  Slight forward tilt of pelvis, tighten core muscles. Slowly bend at hips and lower body as if sitting into chair. Lower down far enough where proper mechanics are kept.  Ensure weight of body is through heels of feet on the way  Make sure knees are behind toes and not drifting inwards.  Repeat as many as possible with good form! Feel the  Proper footwear  Adequate training program and coaching  Cross training and strengthening for injury prevention (I.e. biking, swimming, wt training)  Get a Physiotherapist to assess biomechanics and address any imbalances that may exist  Common cause of running injuries is improper



Hum Genet (2001) 108 : 249–254DOI 10.1007/s004390100485 Ulrike Sauermann · Peter Nürnberg · Fred B. Bercovitch · John D. Berard · Andrea Trefilov · Anja Widdig · Matt Kessler · Jörg Schmidtke · Michael Krawczak Increased reproductive success of MHC class II heterozygous males among free-ranging rhesus macaquesReceived: 27 November 2000 / Accepted: 11 January 2001 / Published online

Progesterone spec sheet pss-ps1113-2

PROGESTERONE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY TEST KIT Catalog Number: PS-1113 Enzyme Immunoassay for the PRINCIPLE OF THE TEST Quantitative Determination of Progesterone Concentration in The progesterone EIA is based on the principle of Human Serum competitive binding between progesterone in the test specimen and progesterone-HRP conjugate for a constant amount of rabbit anti-prog

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