Microsoft word - b.sc. botany part i-ii-iii-2013-15
B.Sc. Ist year
Duration of examination of each theory papers
PAPER – I
ALGAE, LICHENS AND BRYOPHYTES
General characters, Classification and economic importance of Algae.
Important features and life history of Chlorophyceace and Charophyceae.
Structure and life cycle of Volvox, Oedogonium
Important features and life history of Xanthophyceae and
Phaeophyceae. Structure and life cycle of Vaucheria
Important Features and life history of Rhodophyceae. Structure and
life cycle of Polysiphonia
. Lichens: Morphology and structure of the two
components; biological, ecological and economic importance.Vegetative
multiplication methods with special reference to Parmelia
Bryophytes: General characters, alternation of generations and
classification.Characters and Classification of Hepaticopsida. Morphology and
life history of Riccia, Marchantia
Characters and classification of Anthocerotopsida and Bryopsida.
Morphology and life history of Anthoceros
Algae: Microscopic preparation and study of following algal materials: Volvox, Oedogonium, Coleochaete, Vaucheria, Chara, Ectocarpus, Sargassum
Bryophytes: Study of external morphology and microscopic preparations of following Bryophytes: Riccia
, Marchantia, Plagiochasma, Anthoceros
Bold, H.C., Alexopoulous, C.J. and Delevoryas, T. Morphology of Plant and
Fungi (4th Ed.) Harper & Foul Co., New York, 1980.
Ghemawat, M.S., Kapoor, J.N. and Narayan, H.S. A text book of Algae,
Gilbert, M.S. Cryptogamic Botany, Vol. I & II (2nd Ed.), Tata McGraw Hill,
Kumar, H.D. Introductory Phycology, Affiliated East–West Press, Ltd., New
Pandey, S.N. and Trivedi, P.S. A Text Book of Botany 2000 Volume I, Vikas
Puri, P. Bryophytes, Atmaram & Sons, Delhi, Lucknow, 1985.
Singh, V., Pande, P.C. and Jain, D.K. A Text Book of Botany, Rastogi & Co.,
Vashista, B.R. Botany for Degree Students (Algae, Fungi Bryophyta), S.
PAPER – II
MYCOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY AND PHYTOPATHOLOGY
General characters, Classification and economic importance of fungi.
Important features and life history of Mastigomycotina–Pythium
; Ascomycotina–Saccharomyces, Aspergillus
Important features and life history of Basidiomycotina– Puccinia,
Viruses: Chemical and physical nature; Structure, multiplication and
transmission of plant viruses. Tobacco mosaic virus and yellow vein mosaic
virus disease. General account of Viroids, AIDS and Prions.
Bacteria–Structure, nutrition, cell division, reproduction and economic
importance. Biofilms and Quorum sensing in microbes. Cyanobacteria–Life
history of Nostoc
; Nitrogen fixation – by BGA (Blue green
algae). General account and biology of Mycoplasma and Phytoplasma.
Causes and symptoms of plant diseases with special reference to green
ear disease of Bajra, smut of wheat, citrus canker, little leaf of brinjal and root
knot disease. A brief account of principles of plant protection.
Microscopic preparation and study of following fungal materials: Albugo, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ustilago, Agaricus,
. Viruses: Study of disease symptoms caused by Tobacco mosaic virus and yellow vein mosaic virus.
Bacteria: Gram staining of bacteria. Nostoc, Oscillatoria
and study of bacteriological specimens. Study of symptoms of following diseases: (specimen or photographs)
Alexopoulos, C.J. and Mims. Introductory Mycology, John Wiley and Sons,
Bilgrami, K.S. and Dube, H.C. A Text Book of Modern Plant Pathology,
Biswas, S.B. and Biswas, A. An Introduction to Viruses, Vikas Publ. House,
Clifton, A. Introduction to Bacteria, McGraw Hill Co., New York, 1985.
Dube, H.C. Fungi, Rastogi Publication, Meerut, 1989.
Kaushik, P. Microbiology, Emkay Publication, 2001.
Madahar, C.L. Introduction to plant viruses, S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi,
Palezer, Chan and King. Microbiology, McGraw Hill Book Co., London,
Pathak, V.N. Fundamentals of Plant Pathology, Agro Botanica. 2000.
Purohit, S.S. Microbiology, Agro. Bot. Publication, Jodhpur, 2002.
Sharma, O.P. Fungi, Today and tomorrow Publication, 2000.
Sharma, P.D. Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Rastogi Publ. Meerut, 2003.
Singh, V. and Srivastava, V. Introduction to Bacteria, Vikas Publication,
Vashista, B.R. Botany for Degree student Fungi, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi,
PAPER – III
PALAEOBOTANY, PTERIDOPHYTES AND GYMNOSPERMS
Geological time scale, Fossilization. General characters and
classification and Pteridophytes. Important characteristics of Psilopsida,
Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida. Stelar systems in Pteridophyta.
Structure and reproduction in Rhynia
Occurrence, Structure and life history of Lycopodium, Selaginella
Occurrence, structure and life history of Adiantum, Marsilea
. Heterospory in Pteridophyta.
Characteristics of seed plants, evolution of the seed habit. General
features of gymnosperms and their classification; evolution, diversity and
economic importance of Gymnosperms. Cycas
Morphology of vegetative and
reproductive parts, anatomy of root, stem and leaf; Reproduction and life
Unit 5: Pinus
: Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts,
anatomy of root, stem and leaf, reproduction and life cycle.
Palaeobotany: Microscopic examination of slides of Rhynia
Pteridophytes: Study of external morphology of Lycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetm, Adiantum, Marsilea,
. Microscopic study of temporary double stained preparations of stem/rhizome of Lycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetum
Study of temporary single stained microscopic preparations of cone of Selaginella
and T.S. of Sporophyll of Adiantum
and sections of sporocarp of Marsilea
Gymnosperms:Study of external morphology of plant parts of Cycas
: young and old foliage leaf, scale leaf, bulbils, male cone, microsporophyll, megasporophyll and mature seed (if material is not available show photographs).
Microscopic temporary double stained preparations of rachis and leaflet of Cycas. Study of T.S. normal and Corolloid root by permanent slides.
Study of external morphology of plant parts of Pinus
habit, long and dwarf shoot, male cone; female cone; winged seeds.
Microscopic temporary preparation of pollen grains (W.M.) of Pinus
. Study through permanent slides T.S. stem: young and old; male/female cone of Pinus
Study of habit and structure of whole male and female cone of Ephedra
Microscopic preparation of male and female flowers of Ephedra
Bold, H.C., Alexopolous, C.J. and Delevoryas, T. Morphology of plant and
fungi (4th ed.), Harper and Foul, Co., New York, 1980.
Gifford, E.M. and Foster, A.S. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants,
W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1988.
Pandey, S.N., Mishra, S.P., Trivedi, P.S. A Text Book of Botany Vol. II,
Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi 2000.
Raven, P.H. Evert, R.F. and Eichhom, S.C. Biology of plants, (5th ed.), W.H.
Reema and Co., Worth Publication, New York, U.S.A., 1999.
Sharma, O.P. Pteridophytes, Today and tomorrow Publication, 2000.
Sporne, K.R. The Morphology of Gymnosperms, B.I. Publ. Pvt., Bombay,
Vashista, P.C. Gymnosperm, S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 2002.
Vashista, P.C. Pteridophyta, S. Chand & Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 2002.
Wilson, N.S. and Rothewall, G.W. Palaeobotany and evolution of Plants, (2nd
ed.), Cambridge University Press, U.K., 1993.
B.Sc. IInd year
Angiosperms, Economic Botany and Ethnobotany
Duration of examination of each theory papers
PAPER – I
TAXONOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY OF
Diversity in plant form in annuals, biennials and perennials, Canopy
architecture in angiosperms: tree-origin, development, arrangement and
diversity in size and shape, Flower-modified shoot, structure and development
of flower, Inflorescence-types of Inflorescence.
Angiosperms: Origin and evolution. Some examples of primitive
angiosperms. Angiosperm taxonomy; (Alpha-taxonomy, Omega-taxonomy,
holotaxonomy) Taxonomic literature. Botanical nomenclature; principles and
rules; taxonomic ranks, type concept, principle of priority. Classification of
angiosperms; salient features of the systems proposed by Bentham and Hooker
and Engler and Prantl.
Major contributions of cytology and molecular biology,
phytochemistry and taximetrics to taxonomy. Diversity of flowering plants as
illustrated by members of the families Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae,
Caryophyllaceae, Capparidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Rutaceae and Apiaceae.
Diversity of flowering plants as illustrated by members of the families
Asteraceae, Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Scrophulariaceae,
Lamiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Musaceae and Poaceae.
Embryology: Structure of anther and pistil. Development of the male
and female gametophytes; pollen-pistil interactions, self incompatibility;
Double fertilization; Development of endosperm and embryo; Brief account of
experimental embryology. Basics of gene imprinting.
Field study of diversities found in leaf shapes, size, thickness and surface properties.
The following families are for detailed taxonomic studies:
Ranunculaceae: Ranunculus, Delphinium
Caryophyllaceae: Dianthus, Gypsophylla, Saponaria
Apiaceae: Coriandrum, Foeniculum, Anethum
Asteraceae: Helianthus, Calandula, Sonchus
Apocynaceae: Catharanthus, Thevetia, Nerium
Scrophulariaceae: Linaria, Antirrhinum
Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia, Phyllanthus
Poaceae: Avena, Triticum, Hordeum, Poa, Sorghum
Bhojwani, S.S. and Bhatnagar, S.P. The Embryology of Angiosperms, 4th
Revised and enlarged edition, Vikas Publ., New Delhi, 2002.
Davis, P.H. and Heywood, V.H. Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy, Oliver
Fegerig K. and Vender Pifi The Principles of Pollination Ecology, Pergamon
Gifford, E.M. and Foster, A.S. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants,
W.H. Freemad and Company, New York, 1979.
Heywood, V.H. and Moore, D.M. (eds.) Morphology and Evolution of
Vascular Plants, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1984.
Jeffrey, C. An Introduction to Plant Taxonomy, Cambridge University Press,
Jones, S.D. Jr. and Suchsinger, A.E. Plant Systematic (2nd ed.) McGraw-Hill
Maheshwari, J.K. Flora of Delhi, CSIR, New Delhi, 1963.
Redford, A.E.: Fundamentals of Plant Systematics, Harper and Row, New
Sharma, O.P. Taxonomy: Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Company Ltd., New Delhi
Singh, G. Plant Systematics – Theory and Practices, Oxford and IBH Pvt.
Singh, V., Pandey, P.C. and Jain, D.K. Angiosperms, 2005, Rastogi Pub.,
PAPER – II
ANATOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS, ECONOMIC BOTANY
Anatomy of Angiosperms: Concept of stem cell in plants. Root
system; Root apical meristem; differentiation of primary and secondary tissues
and their roles; structural modification for storage, respiration, reproduction
and for interaction with microbes.
Shoot system: The shoot apical meristem and its histological
organization; vascularization of primary shoot in monocotyledons and
dicotyledons; cambium and its functions; formation of secondary xylem, a
general account of wood structure in relation to conduction of water and
minerals; characteristics of growth rings, sapwood and heart wood; secondary
phloem-structure, function relationship; Periderm.
Abnormal secondary growth and Leaf: Abnormal secondary growth in
stems due to abnormal origin and activity of cambium. Leaf: Internal structure
in relation to photosynthesis and water loss; adaptations to water stress;
senescence and abscission.
Economic Botany, Food plants: Rice, wheat, maize, potato, sugarcane.
Fibers: Cotton and Jute. Vegetable oils: Groundnut, mustard and coconut,
General account of sources of firewood, timber and bamboos. Beverages: Tea and coffee; Rubber.
Spices and Condiments: General account. Medicinal plants with
special reference to Rajasthan: Aloe, Asparagus, Commiphora, Boswellia,
Pedalium, Zyziphus, Haloxylon, Tribulus, Vitex,
Introduction, Methods of Ethnobotanical studies, knowledge of aboriginals in
ANATOMY: L.S. of Shoot tip of study Cytohistological zonation and origin in leaf primordial. Anatomy of primary and secondary growths in monocots and dicots using hand sections (or prepared slides). Structure of secondary phloem and xylem. Growth rings in wood. Microscopic study of wood in T.S., T.L.S. and R.L.S. Internal structure of leaf. Structure and development of stomata (using epidermal peels of leaf). Anatomy of root, primary and secondary structures, Abnormal secondary growth in stem.
ECONOMIC BOTANY: Food plants: Study of morphology and structure. Simple microchemicals tests of the food storing tissues in rice, wheat, maize, potato and sugarcane. Microscopic examination of starch in these plants (except sugarcane)
Fibers: Study of cotton fiber, tests for cellulose. Vegetable oils: study of hand sections of Groundnut, Mustard and Coconut and staining of oils droplets by Sudan III and Sudan Black
Field visits: To study sources of firewood (10 plants), timber-yielding trees (10 trees) and bamboos. A list to be prepared mentioning special features
Medicinal Plants & Spices: Black pepper, cloves, cardamom describe them in briefly. Study of 10 medicinal plants. Write their botanical and common names, parts used and diseases/disorders for which they are prescribed.
Beverages & Rubber: Cofee, Tea & Rubber
ETHNOBOTANY: Ethobotanically important plants of Rajasthan (Abrus, Leptidenia and Calotropis)
Cutter, E.G. Plant Anatomy: Experiment and Interpretation, Part II. Organs,
Esau, K. Anatomy of Seed Plants, 2nd John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977.
Fahn, A. Plant Anatomy. 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1974.
Kocchar, S.L. Economic Botany in Tropics. 2nd ed. Mac-millan India Ltd.,
Mauseth, J.D. Plant Anatomy, The Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Company Inc.,
Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S. and Subramanyam, N.S. A Text book of Economic
Botany, Wiley Eastern Ltd., New York, 1989.
Sharma, O.P. Hill’s Economic Botany (Late Dr. A.F. Hill, Adapted by O.P.
Sharma), Tata McGraw Hill Co., Ltd., New Delhi, 1996.
Simposon, B.B. and Conner-Ororzaly, M. Economic Botany Plants in Our
PAPER – III
CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS, PLANT BREEDING AND
: History of cell biology: Concept of cell and cell theory. Cell cycle and
its regulation. Mitosis and meiosis. Structural and Molecular organization of
cell. Structure and function of cell wall; plasmodesmata, plasma membrane;
golgi complex, plastid, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes,
vacuoles and nucleus. Unit 2
: Chromatin organization: Organization and structure of chromosomes.
Concept of nucleosomes, chromatin remodeling. Types of chromosomes and
sex chromosomes. Chromosome alteration: Structural alteration; deletion,
duplication, translocation, inversion; Numerical variation: aneuploidy and
polyploidy. Molecular basis of mutation: Spontaneous and induced, brief
account of DNA damage and repair. Introduction to epigenetics. Unit 3
: Nature of inheritance; Laws of Mendelian inheritance and its
exceptions. Crossing- over and linkage analysis. DNA the genetic material:
Structure and replication, brief account of DNA- protein interaction.
Definition of a gene-modern Concept of gene (Promoter, coding sequences,
terminator). RNA polymerases and general transcription. Regulation of gene
expression in prokaryotes and basics of gene regulation in eukaryotes. Unit-4
: Origin of Agriculture, Centers of origin of crop plants and centers of
Diversity. Concepts of Centers and Non-center (Harlan Hypothesis) Principles
of plant breeding- Domestication, Introduction, Selection, Clonal propagation,
Hybridization, Mutation breeding; Breeding work done on wheat; Green
revolution; Assessment and Consequences; Biodiversity and Conservation of
: Theories of Evolution: Catastrophism, The Lamark’s theory, Darwin’s
theory, Evidences of organic evolution, mechanism of evolution. Origin of
basic biomolecules evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. and Origin of
species Population genetics: Allele and genotype frequency, Hardy-
SUGGESTED LABORATORY EXERCISES
1. Study of cell structure from onion leaf peels 2. Comparative study of cell structure in onion cells and Hydrilla
3. Smear preparation of root tips for different stages in Allium
root tip 4. Cytological examination special types of chromosomes (Slides) 5. Examination of electron micrographs of eukaryotic cells and cell
1. Working out laws of inheritance using seed mixtures 2. Monohybrid, dihybrid and test crosses using seed samples
1. Demonstration of Emasculation techniques.
Alberts, B., Bray, D ., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. and Watson, I.D.
Molecular Biology of cell
. Garland publishing Co., New York, USA
Chaudhary, H.K. Elementary principles of plant Breeding, Oxford & IBH
Gupta, P.K. A Textbook of cell and Molecular Biology, Rastogi
Gupta, P.K. Cytology, Genetics, Evolution and plant Breeding, Rastogi,
Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S.L., Matsudaira, P., Baltimore, D. and
Darnell, J. Molecular Cell Biology, W.H. Freeman & Co. New York, USA
Miglani, G.S. Advanced Genetics , Narosa publishing Co., Inc., USA
Russel, P.J. Genetics. The Benjamin/ Cummings Publishing Co., Inc., USA
Shukla, R.S. and Chandel, P.S. Cytogenetics, Evolution and Plant
Breeding, S.Chand & Co.Ltd., New Delhi
Singh B.D. Textbook of plant Breeding. Kalyani publishers, Ludhiana,1999
Sinha, U. and Sinha, S. Cytogenetics, Plant Breeding and Evolution, Vikas
Sunstand, D.P. and Simmons, M.J. Principles of Genetics, John Wiley &
Duration of examination of each theory papers
PAPER – I
ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL
Plants and Environment: Atmosphere (gaseous composition), water
(properties of water cycle), light (global radiation, phytosynthetically active
radiation), temperature, soil (development, soil profiles, physico-chemical
properties) and biota.
Morphological, anatomical and physiological responses of plants to water
vernalization), light (photoperiodism, heliophytes and sciophytes) and salinity
Population ecology: Concept and characters, growth curves, biotic
potential, ecotypes and ecads. Seed: The significance, suspended animation;
ecological adaptation and dispersal strategies
Community ecology and Succession: Community characteristics, frequency,
density, cover, life forms and biological spectrum. Succession: concept,
classification and examples (hydrosere & xerosere)
Ecosystems and Productivity: Ecosystem –– Structure, abiotic &
biotic components, food chain, food web, ecological pyramids, energy flow,
biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and Sulphur.
Productivity: Primary productivity, its measurements and factors affecting
Environmental Biology of Indian Desert: Climate, vegetation types,
adaptive strategies of desert plants. Desertification: meanings, causes, critical
issues & driving forces. Agroforestry and its impact on desert agriculture.
Desert biodiversity, Geomorphology, natural resources exploitation and their
impact on desert environment
Pollution Ecology: Definitions, classification, air, water and land
pollution. Concepts of Industrial Ecology in pollution management. Global
warming : Concepts and Current status.
Phytogeography: Vegetation types of India –– Forest and Grasslands.
Biogeographical regions of India, Remote sensing: The basics and applications
in ecological studies
To determine minimum number of quadrats required for reliable estimation of biomass in herbaceous vegetation
To study the frequency of herbaceous species and to compare the frequency distribution with Raunkaier’s Standard frequency diagram
To estimate Importance Value Index for herbaceous vegetation on the basis of relative frequency, relative density and relative biomass in protected and Gochar land
To measure the vegetation cover of grassland through point frame
To measure the above ground plant biomass in a natural field
To determine diversity indices (richness Simpson, Shannon-Weaver) in natural fields
To estimate bulk density and porosity of soil samples
To determine moisture contents, water holding capacity and texture of soil samples
To estimate qualitatively nitrate, phosphate and potassium in soil samples
To study the vegetation structure through profile diagram
To estimate transparency and pH of different water bodies
To measure dissolved oxygen content in polluted and unpolluted water samples
To estimate salinity, hardness, carbonates and bicarbonate in different water samples
To determine the percent leaf area injury of different leaf samples collected around polluted site
To estimate dust holding capacity of the leaves of different plant species
Plant adaptive modifications: Specimens/Slides:
Salt secretion: Atriplex, Chloris
Salt accumulation: Suaeda, Salsola, Zygophyllum
Xerophytes: Calligonum, Capparis, Leptadenia, Parkinsonia
Hydrophytes: Eichhornia, Nymphaea, Hydrilla
Dash, M.C. Fundamental of Ecology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.,
Kormondy, E.J. Concepts of Ecology, Prentice – Hall of India Pvt., New
Kumar, H.D. General Ecology, Vikash Publishing House Pvt. New Delhi,
Mukherjee, B. Environmental Biology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co.
Odum, E.P. Basic Ecology, Sauders, Philadelphia, 1983
Sen, D.N. Environment and Plant Life in Indian Desert, Geobios International,
Sharma, P.D. Ecology and Environment, Rastogi Publications, Meerut 2002
PAPER – II
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY
Plant-water relations: Importance of water to plant life; physical
properties of water; diffusion and osmosis; absorption, transport of water and
transpiration; physiology of stomata
Mineral nutrition: Essential macro- and micro-elements and their role, mineral
uptake; deficiency and toxicity symptoms
Transport of organic substances: Mechanism of phloem transport; source-sink
relationship; factors affecdting translocation
Photosynthesis: Significance; historical aspects; photosynthetic
pigments; action spectra and enhancement effects; concept of two
photosystems; Z-scheme; photophosphorylation; Calvin cycle; C4 pathway;
CAM plants; photorespiration. Rubisco and its regulation.
Respiration: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Kreb’s cycle; electron
transport mechanism (chemi – osmotic theory); redox potential; oxidative
phosphorylation pentose phosphate pathway
Basics of enzymology: Discovery and nomenclature; characteristics of
enzymes; concept of holoenzyme, apoenzyme, coenzyme and cofactors;
regulation of enzyme activity; mechanism of action, Protein structures
Nitrogen and lipid metabolism: Biological Nitrogen fixation and
metabolism. Importance of nitrate reductase and its regulation; ammonium
assimilation. Structure and function of lipids; fatty acid biosynthesis; B-
oxidation; saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; storage and mobilization of
Growth and development: Definitions; phases of growth and
development. Seed dormancy, seed germination. Photoperiodism, physiology
of flowering; florigen concept. biological clocks vernalization. physiology of
senescence, fruit ripening. Plant Hormones-auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins,
abscisic acid and ethylene, history of their discovery, Physiological role and
mode of action. Photomorphogenesis; phytochromes and cryptochromes.
To study the permeability of plasma membrane using different concentrations of organic solvents
To study the effect of temperature on permeability of plasma membrane
To prepare the standard curve of protein and determine the protein content in unknown samples
To study the enzyme activity of catalase and peroxidase as influenced by pH and temperature
Comparison of the rate of respiration of various plant parts
Separation of chloroplast pigments by solvent method
Determining the osmotic potential of vacuolar sap by
Determining the water potential of any tuber
Separation of amino acids in a mixture by paper chromatography and their identification by comparison with standards
Bioassay of auxin, cytokinin, GA, ABA and ethylene using appropriate plant material
To study the regulation of stomatal movement using growth regulators, KCI and anti-transpirants
Dennis, D.T., Turpin, D.H., Lefebvre, D.D. and Layzell (eds.). Plant
Metabolism (2nd ed.), Longman, Essex, England, 1997
Galston, A.W. Life processes in Plants, Scientific American Library, Springer-
Hopkins, W.G. Introduction to plant physiology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
Lea, P.J. and Leegood, R.C. Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, John
Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 1999
Mohr, H. and Schopfer, P. Plant Physiology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
Salisbury, F.B. and Ross, C.W. Plant Physiology (4th ed.), Wadsworth
Srivastava, H.S. Plant Physiology, Rastogi Publication, Meerut, 2001
Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. Plant Physiology (2nd ed.), Sinauer Associats, Inc.
Amar Singh. Practical Plant Physiology, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 1977
Moore, T.C. Research Experiences in Plant Physiology: A Laboratory Manual,
Nifa, A.J. and Ballou, D.P. Fundamental Laboratory Approaches for
Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Fitzrierald Science Press, Inc., Maryland, USA, 1998
Robalts and Tucker, G.A. (Eds.) Plant Hormone Protocols, Humana Press,
Scot, R.P.W. Techniques and Practice of Chromatography Marcel Dekker,
Wilson, K. and Goulding, K.H. A Biologists Guide to principles and
techniques of Practical Biochemistry, Ed-ward Arnold, London, 1986
PAPER – III
PLANT BIOTECHONOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
: Cell theory and concept of totipotency and pluripotency. Introduction,
History and application: plant tissue culture and biotechnology.
Genes, genomics, and proteomics: general introduction. Basic tools and techniques of molecular biology: History of genetic manipulation,
restriction enzymes, ligases, electrophoresis (Agarose and PAGE) and PCR. General introduction and applications of DNA finger printing, bioinformatics and NanoBiotechnology.
: Bacterial and viral genome organization (with special reference to
plasmids and phage). Genetic recombination in bacteria. Vectors for
gene cloning: p-BR322, p-UC18, Cosmids, Phagemids, BAC, PAC, YAC and
HAC; c-DNA libraries. Detection and screening of recombinant DNA. Unit 3
: : General techniques of micropropagation.Fundamental and molecular
aspects of organogenesis-somatic embryogenesis and androgenesis. Genetic
basis of somaclonal variations and its applications.Protoplast isolation, fusion
and somatic hybridization. Cryopreservation of germplasm.
Various types of bioreactors. Industrial production of secondary metabolites
with special reference to Ephedra
alkaloids, shikonin, diosgenin and Vinca
alkaloids. Strategies used to optimize secondary metabolite production. Unit-4
: Genetic engineering of plants. Agrobacterium
as a natural genetic
engineer: molecular organization of genetic makeup, t-DNAtransfer
mechanism integration and expression in plants.Genetic engineering of
nitrogen fixation; basic biology, prospects and future challenges. Direct
method of gene transfer in plants: Chemical methods electroporation, particle
gun delivery, lipofection, microinjection, macroinjection, pollen
transformation, laser induced and silicon fiber mediated. Reporter (Lucifarase,
GUS and GFP) and marker genes.
: Biotechnology and society: Development of transgenic crop plants
against biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetically modified crops: Golden rice, Bt cotton and Bt brinjal (as a model system).Molecular marker assisted plant breeding. Plant Breeder’s Rights (PBR) and Intellectual Property Right (IPR) in current regime of WTO. Impact of GM crops on society and environment.
Demonstration of the technique of micropropagation by using different explants, e.g. auxiliary buds, shoot meristems
Demonstration of the techniques of anther culture
Isolation of protoplasts from different tissues using commercially available enzymes
Demonstration of root and shoot formation from the apical and basal portions of stem segments in liquid medium containing different hormones
5. Demonstrations/poster on GM Crops and related issues
Bhojwani, S.S. Plant Tissue Culture: Application and Limitation, Elsevier
Old, R.W. and Primrose, S.B. Principles of Gene Manipulation, Black well
Scientific Publications, Oxford, U.K., 1986
Raghavan, O. Embryogenesis in Angiosperms: A Developmental and
Experimental Study, Cambridge University, Press, New York, USA, 1986
Vasil, I.K. and Thorpe, T.A. Plant Cell and Tissue Culture, Kluwer Academic
Ball, R.D. (ed.) Plant Cell Culture Protocols, Humana Press, Inc. New Jersey,
Dixon, R.A. (ed.) Plant Cell culture: a Practical Approach, IRL, Press Oxford,
Glick, B.R. and Thompson, J.E. Methods in Plant Molecular Biology and
Biotechnology, CRC Press, Boxa Raton, Florida, 1993
Roberts, J. and Tucker, G.A. (eds.) Plant Hormone Protocols Humana Press,
Homeobotanicals Prescribing with Power and Precision classic herb range A ALLERGY Acute and chronic allergies for Albizzia, Golden Rod, Baical, airborne, dietary and idiopathic sources. 7 DYNAMA Stamina. The maintenance remedy P PANCREAS For the support of pancreas function. Fenugreek, Gymnema, Jambul, Balances hormone & enzyme physiology. B BLOOD AND LYMPH “Blood Pur
Meta Patterns—A Means For Capturing the Essentials of Reusable Object-Oriented Design C. Doppler Laboratory for Software EngineeringJohannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz, AustriaVoice: ++43 70-2468-9431; Fax: ++43 70-2468-9430 Abstract. There is an undeniable demand to capture already proven and matured object-oriented design so that building reusable object-oriented software do