Chemical Head Lice Products
Pillow cases of persons known to be infested should be washed
daily on hot cycle or put in the clothes dryer for 15 minutes
Pyrethrins Eg Amcal Head Lice Foam, Lyban Foam
Treat all household members whose head lice have been detected.
Synthetic Pyrethroids (bioalletrhin, permethrin) eg Paralice,
Keep hair short, particularly during an outbreak. It is easier to
detect and treat head lice in short hair.
Organophosphates eg Exolice Medicate Foam, Lice Rid
Notify your school so that others can be alerted to the problem
Combinations of Herbal and Essential Oils eg Quit Nits Natural
and can check for head lice and arrange treatment if necessary.
It is essential to check the effectiveness of every treatment after a product has been on the hair for the recommended amount of time and
Comb the hair with a fine tooth head lice comb, wiping the comb
Repeat until whole head is combed and little treatment
After 5 minutes examine the tissues and assess the lice as dead
(no movement), inactive (louse is stationary but moving legs or antennae), or active (louse moving).
If the product is effective, all lice should be dead.
What to do if the product doesn’t work
If the product is not effective, ie head lice are not dead at the end of
exposure time, you can switch to the non-chemical method while waiting 7-10 days before re-treating with a different active ingredient.
Continue checking the effectiveness of treatment products until an
effective product if found, or use the non-chemical method.
While there is no need to vacuum, wash or treat with insecticide any
furniture, clothing, bedding (except pillowcases), toys, carpets or hats,
the following actions can be taken to help to prevent infestation/re-
Fact sheets on this and other topics can be found at
Avoid head to head contact with other persons
Keep long hair tied back or in plaits, especially at school. Do not share brushes, combs or pillows Wash combs and hire brushes after each use (600C for 30 seconds)
What are they?
Head Lice (Pediculus capitis) are small, wingless, egg laying insects
Head lice do not fly or jump
found on the human head. They grow to about 3.5mm (the size of a
They are spread mainly by direct head to head contact
Non-insecticidal treatment using the conditioner and
sesame seed or pin head). Head lice live on the hair and feed by
They have strong claws and move by swinging from hair to hair.
sucking blood from the scalp. They are pale grey in colour before
This can happen when people play, cuddle or work closely
feeding and reddish brown after feeding.
This is the same as detection using conditioner and combing (as
A few head lice have been found on combs, hairbrushes and
detailed above) except continue combing with the head lice comb
(sometimes called nits) are glued to the hair shaft within
pillow cases. However, transmission from these items
until all the conditioner is gone. The conditioner blocks the
a distance of 1.5cm from the scalp. They hatch in 7-10 days as young
can only occur when the item is used within the 24
louse’s breathing pores and stuns the louse. This, together with
lice (nymphs). It takes up to ten days to become mature lice and
hour period following use by a person with head lice
the slippery effect of the conditioner, makes it easy to
begin laying eggs. Adults are larger than nymphs and a mature female
Head lice can survive only up to a day away from the human
Repeat this method every second day to remove the young
Head lice must feed on human blood every six hours to replenish
nymphs as they hatch. Continue until no live lice are found for
their water supply or they will die of dehydration. The longer
they are away from a human host, the weaker they become and
the less likely they are to infest the next person.
This treatment is just as effective as insecticidal or other chemical
Head lice do not live or breed on animals, bedding,
treatments but generally requires longer treatment times. However, it
furniture, carpets, clothes or soft toys.
maybe preferred as a cheaper alternative to insecticidal or other
Detection of Head Lice
The most effective way to detect head lice is by using the hair
Treatment with synthetic or natural insecticides or other
of a head
conditioner and combing
method. You will need white coloured
hair conditioner, an ordinary comb, a fine tooth head lice comb and
There are four groups of treatment agents available in different
The lifespan is
about 5 weeks
forms (ie shampoo, mousse and lotion) which can be obtained
Apply sufficient white conditioner to dry hair to cover the scalp
All preparations must be applied strictly according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. None of them should be used on
Use an ordinary comb to detangle hair and evenly distribute the
conditioner. Divide the hair into four sections.
children under two years of age, except on medical advice.
After each stroke, wipe the comb onto a white tissue, checking
No chemical treatment kills all the eggs. A second treatment
should be applied 7-10 days after the initial treatment to kill the
nymphs that have hatched from the eggs remaining from the first
Put all tissues in a plastic bag, tie the top and put the bag in a
Do not apply the treatment more than once per week as more
Detection of adult lice or nymphs on the scalp is the best way to
frequent applications could lead to scalp problems and have little
determine if head lice are present. While most people with head lice
All members of the family/household should be checked
will not develop an itch, a smaller number of people develop an itch
once per week using this method as long as there are
If lice are still found after three weeks of chemical applications,
due to an allergic reaction to the saliva of the louse. Scratching can
head lice in the household.
switch to the non-insecticidal method until no lice are found.
give rise to secondary bacterial infections on the scalp. Swelling of
Eggs are the most difficult stage to kill. The most effective way
lymph nodes (adenopathy) in the neck can occur in some people due
to remove eggs is to actually pull them off the hair using your
Hepatotoxicity during therapy with Tipranavir, Citalopram and Finasterid – a case report C. Guhl¹, W. J. Heinz¹, R. Winzer¹, P. Langmann², H. Klinker¹ ¹ Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Würzburg, Germany² Private practice, Am Tiefen Weg, 97753 Karlstadt, Germany Background Other causes of elevated liver enzymes like alc
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