SEASONED WOOD AND TIMBER STRUCTURES CARPENTER ANTS Preventive Control -
Carpenter ant colonies may establish in stumps, unhealthy or dead trees, and in various interior andexterior buildings; wood structures such as studs, rafters, baseboards, door casings and othersupport structures. Exterior decaying structures are particularly vulnerable and should be replaced. Outside stacked wood materials should be removed or examined annually for colony establishment,and not placed adjacent to buildings.
Chemical Control -
Several domestic control products are available for control of ants in and around buildings(diazinon, carbaryl, malathion, propoxur). The products listed below are specifically recommendedfor control of carpenter ant infestations. Concentration Ingredient
Pyrethrin (5%)N-octyl bicycloheptanedicarboximide (10%)
* Application by licensed applicators only.
Locate and determine the extent of excavated cavities in wood structures from the small exudedpiles of "sawdust", by "sounding", and by drilling fine holes. Inject or blow dust or sprays intoholes near the top of cavities and into other cracks and crevices used as exit holes, or onto ant trailsleading to and from the structure. Dusts are usually more effective than sprays. Liquid ant baitswith 1-2% boracic acid (boric acid) will assist in control of carpenter ant infestations. References: Effective Control of Carpenter Ant. Pest Management Regulatory Agency. Web site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pmra-arla/english/pdf/pnotes/carpent-e.pdf
Dry, seasoned, manufactured and unrotted coniferous and hardwoods may be attacked by a variety ofspecies of Powderpost beetles which are more commonly in coastal B.C. areas than in the interior orprairie provinces. Most occurrences are in hardwoods in furniture, flooring, decorative trim, carvedornaments and other exotic wood products. Small circular holes and fine boring sawdust are diagnosticsigns. Cultural Control -
Expose infested material to heat (above 60EC) or to freezing temperatures for several hours. Unfinished material can be protected by varnishing, painting, coating with linseed oil or wax, or byusing acceptable wood preservatives. Heavily infested material should be destroyed or replaced. Chemical Control - Concentration Ingredient References – Note: Pesticides recommended in the following factsheets may not be registered for such uses in Canada.
Preventing and Controlling Powderpost Beetles in and Around the Home. J. DeAngelis. Factsheet PNW 326 http://www.ent.orst.edu/urban/PDF%20Files/Powderpost%20Beetles.pdf
Powderpost Bettles. William F. Lyon. Ohio State University fact sheet # HYG-2090-96http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2090.html
WCCP 1998 SAWYER BEETLES
Sawyer beetles attack newly killed or severely weakened coniferous trees, mostly within the first yearfollowing death. The larvae bore tunnels into the wood and may be present for one to three years. Preventive Control -
Process newly cut logs into lumber or other wood products within a few months after cutting. Remove bark of fresh-killed trees by early June. Direct Control -
Expose infested logs to 60-71EC for two or more hours. Chemical Control - Concentration Ingredient References -
Monochamus spp. (Cerambycidae) Sawyer beetles. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/fetch21/FRST308/lab7/monochamus_sp/sawyer.html
Seasoned Wood and Timber Structures TERMITES
Pacific dampwood termite and Western subterranean termites feed in wood structures, especiallyconiferous materials and may eventually cause weakening or collapse of the structure. Favoured locationsinclude: coniferous forests; dead trees; stumps, logs, or various wood structures; and partially decayed ormechanically damaged wood material in contact with the ground or moist substrate. Preventive Control -
New Constructions: Remove all wood and cellulose debris from property prior to erecting formsfor pouring concrete. After pouring concrete slabs, walls, piers, etc., remove all framework woodfrom the building site. Do not use back fill containing wood or cellulose. It is important that newconstruction has a minimum wood-to-soil clearance of 50 cm in order to discourage termiteinvasion. Use pressure-treated wood where contact with soil is possible or clearance is less than 50cm.
- Wooden outdoor structures in contact with the ground should be protected from termite attack
by application of wood preservatives that contain copper 8-quinolinolate, copper naphthenate orcreosote. Existing Structures: Replace wood infested and damaged beyond repair. Correct conditions leadingto abnormally high moisture in and around the structure, e.g. grading, eaves troughing, etc. Break wood-soil contact by the following measures:- Remove all loose wood and other cellulose debris (stumps, roots, etc) from property around thestructure to be protected. - Ensure adequate clearance (50 cm) exists between soil and structural wood or support postsunder porches or in crawl spaces. Excavate and pour new concrete piers if necessary. Woodensupport posts can be replaced with steel jack posts. - Window sills below grade level require alteration employing a window well to retain soil. - Outdoor, wooden stair supports should be severed 10-15 cm above soil level and supported byconcrete slabs or blocks. - Where wooden siding is used, lower grade to expose a minimum of 15 cm of foundation wall. - Repair all cracks or other points of entry for termites in foundation walls or concrete floors (e.g. expansion jackets, crevices, weeping tiles, utility holes, etc.) with commercial sealant - preferablyconcrete. -
Provide adequate ventilation for soil-surfaced crawl spaces under porches or living areas.
More information on the biology and control of the Western subterranean termite is available athttp://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/croplive/cropprot/termite.htm. Information on termites in general andtheir management is available at http://www.utoronto.ca/forest/termite/termite.htm
WCCP 1998 Chemical Control – Chemical control of termites is best achieved using a professional termite control contractor specillay trained in the detection of termite infestations and in the effective use of termiticides. Concentration Ingredient
* Application by licensed applicators only.
Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate can be applied to dry wood during construction to prevent termitefeeding, or applied to infested wood to stop feeding. Follow product label instructions carefully. References -
For more information on termites, see Urban Entomology Program Faculty of Forestry, University
of Toronto, at http://www.utoronto.ca/forest/termite/termite.htm
The Astrophysical Journal, 533:L5–L8, 2000 April 10᭧ 2000. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A. METALLICITY EVOLUTION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSEObservatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101; [email protected] of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San D
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