1430 1430.1430

a model) on every second beat during train- ing identified the duple form as familiar attest, whereas those who bounced on every third beat identified the triple form. Finally, wetested infants_ preferences without any move-ment training and found no preference for Jessica Phillips-Silver and Laurel J. Trainor* either auditory interpretation, again indicat-ing that movement is crucial for the multi- We hear the melody in music, but we feel the bouncing determined whether infants later beat. People in all cultures move their bodies to preferred the auditory rhythm pattern con- These studies illustrate the strong multisen- the rhythms of music, whether drumming, sing- sory connection between body movement and ing, dancing, or rocking an infant (1). Body Experiment 2 was identical to experiment 1 auditory rhythm processing when inputs from movement involves motor, proprioceptive (per- except that infants were blindfolded during both sources are experienced concurrently. Be- ception of body position), vestibular (percep- training. Infants still preferred to listen to the cause infants did not engage in self-movement, tion of movement and balance), visual, and auditory stimulus that matched the metrical the observed effect likely involves the vestib- auditory systems (2), but few studies have ex- form of their movement training Et (15) 0 2.93, ular and perhaps proprioceptive systems. The amined auditory-vestibular interactions.
P 0 0.01^ (Fig. 1C), indicating that visual in- early development of the vestibular system (5), The ability to feel and interpret the strong formation was not necessary for the effect.
and infant delight at vestibular stimulation when and weak beats in a rhythm pattern allows bounced to a play song or rocked to a lullaby, people to move and dance in time to music.
sonal motion experience was necessary. Dur- suggest that we are observing a strong, early Typically, the strong beats of a rhythm pat- ing training, infants watched without moving vestibular-auditory interaction that is critical different metrical inter-pretations. In other words, Music (MIT Press, Cambridge,MA, 1983).
Fig. 1. Influence of bouncing on auditory encoding of rhythm patterns. (A) Stimuli. Vertical lines represent the snare drum sounds of the rhythm patterns, and oblique lines represent time-marking slapstick sounds (4). (B to D) Results. The y axis represents listening time preference; the x axis represents congruency between bouncing (duple or triple) during training and auditory accents (duple or triple) during testing. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. C, congruent; I, infants_ listening preferences were tested for as the experimenter bounced either on every Supported by a grant to L.J.T. from the Natural Sciences two auditory versions of the rhythm pattern, second or on every third beat of the ambig- and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
which included intensity accents on either uous rhythm pattern. In this case, infants Supporting Online Materialwww.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/308/5727/1430/ every second beat (the duple form) or every showed no preference for the two auditory third beat (the triple form) (Fig. 1A, rows 2 versions Et(15) 0 0.51, P 0 0.62^ (Fig. 1D), and 3, and sound files S1 and S3). Infants indicating that movement of the infant_s own controlled how long they listened to each body was critical for the multisensory effect version of the rhythm pattern in a head-turn preference procedure (4). Infants chose to In order to confirm that the movement it- listen longer to the auditory test stimulus self did not induce auditory accents due to Department of Psychology, McMaster University, with accented beats that matched the beats on changing room acoustics as the subjects moved, we trained a group of adult listeners with *To whom correspondence should be addressed.
P(two-tailed) 0 0.001^ (Fig. 1B). Thus, their

Source: http://www.psychology.mcmaster.ca/ljt/PhillipsSilverScience05.pdf


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