State of Connecticut Department of Consumer Protection NARCOTICS & VARIOUS OTHER CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES January 2000 Prepared by: Drug Control Agent Sharon Milton-Wilhelm Drug Control Agent Gerald J. DeStefano TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER
Amphetamines (Methamphetamine, ICE, CAT)
Marijuana (including Sinsemilla, Hash, Hash Oil)
Amphetamine Variants (DOM, DMT, DET, MDA, MDMA)
Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids (Testosterone and derivatives)
A. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS 1.OPIUM (original source for narcotics) a. Morphine (narcotic alkaloid; approx. 10% naturally occurring in Opium); Sch. II b. Codeine (narcotic alkaloid; appox. 1% naturally occurring in Opium); Sch. II c. Thebaine (narcotic alkaloid; approx. 0.5% naturally occurring in Opium); Sch. II d. Heroin (semi-synthetic narcotic produced from Morphine); Sch. I; 4 x more potent than Morphine OPIATES (natural or semisynthetic narcotic drugs) 1. Diacetylmorphine (Heroin) 2. Morphine (MS Contin) 3. Codeine (Tylenol w/codeine) 4. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) - 4 x as potent as morphine, less side effects, closely related to heroin , “drug store heroin”; Sch. II 5. Oxycodone (Percodan, Percocet, Tylox, Oxycontin) - synthesized from thebaine, similar to codeine but is more potent and has a higher dependence potential; Sch. II 6. Hydrocodone (Lorcet, Lortab, Anexsia, Hycodan,, Tussionex, Vicodin); Sch. III. OPIOIDS (synthetic opiates) 1. Meperidine (Demerol) - similar effects to that of morphine but shorter duration of action and reduced antitussive and antidiarrheal actions; Sch. II 2. Levorphanol (Levo-Dromoran); Sch. II 3. Propoxyphene (Darvon, Darvocet); Sch. IV 4. Pentazocine (Talacen, Talwin NX); Sch. IV 5. Methadone (Dolophine) - used for the treatment of narcotic addiction or severe pain, chemically unrelated to morphine or heroin although pharmacologically similar, Long acting (24 hours); Sch. II 6. Fentanyl (Sublimaze, Duragesic) -used legally for pain control and anesthesia; many different analogues have been identified; hundreds of times more potent than heroin; effects are indistinguishable from those of heroin; used IV, smoked or snorted.; Sch. II; Most analogs Sch. I 2. BARBITURATES (Phenobarbital, Amobarbital, Butabarbital, Aprobarbital, Secobarbital, Pentobarbital, Thiopental) 3. BENZODIAZEPINES (Diazepam, Alprazolam, Chlordiazepoxide, Clorazepate, Halazepam, Lorazepam, Oxazepam, Prazepam, Estazolam, Flurazepam, Quazepam, Temazepam, Triazolam, Midazolam, Clonazepam, Flunitrazepam) 4. NON-BARBITURIC ACID (Methaqualone, Glutethimide, Chloral Hydrate) 5. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 1. HEROIN (Schedule I) Appearance: Pure heroin is a white powder with a bitter taste. Most illicit heroin is a powder, which may vary in color from white to dark brown because of impurities left from the manufacturing process or the presence of additives. Mexican tar heroin may be gummy, hard, or a powder and can vary in color from brown to black. Tar heroin has a noticeable chemical odor similar to that of vinegar. Effects on Central Nervous System: Depressant
General Side-Effects: Pinpoint pupils, loss of coordination, lowered sensation of pain, lowered pulse and respiration rate, slurred speech, drooping eyelids and head nodding forward, disorientation, itchy nose and skin, lowered blood pressure, sweating, constipation, dry mouth, and injection sites (tracks) if used IV. From the standpoint of the heroin abuser, heroin provides a soothing sense of relaxation and well being. The abuser will repeatedly experience the euphoria, and will soon find it difficult to stop taking the drug. The body quickly develops a tolerance to heroin. Dependence: high physical and psychological Medical Use (morphine & codeine): Analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal (Note: Heroin is used as a legitimate medicine in a number of countries. It relieves both cough and diarrhea, and is an effective pain killer and tranquilizer. It has no medical use, however in U.S.) Street Names for Heroin: Antifreeze, brown, big H, brown sugar, China man, downtown, hombre, horse, lemon dope, scag, schmeck, smack, white stuff. Mexican tar heroin : tar, ball, black heroin, black tar, gum, gumball, Mexican mud, tootsie roll. Source: Opium is the source of all opiate drugs (heroin, morphine, codeine, hydromorphone, oxycodone) and is obtained from the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum. Golden Triangle (Burma, Laos, and Thailand), Golden Crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran) and Mexico are the primary countries involved in the illicit cultivation of opium. Recently, a sharp increase has been seen in Colombia and Vietnam. Morphine is the prevalent alkaloid found in opium (approx. 5% to 10%). Other alkaloids include Codeine and Thebaine. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) HEROIN (continued) History: Used by Assyrians over 9,000 years ago for medicinal use. In 4,000 B.C., the Sumerians were cultivating opium poppies in what is now Iraq. Used by the Greeks around the third century B.C. Medicinal and recreational use spread to Asia, Africa, and Europe. In 1803 the main active substance in opium was isolated (morphine). Opium and morphine were widely and legally available in U.S. during the 1800’s on an over-the- counter basis (relaxants, alcoholism, diarrhea, cough, teething pain). During the mid 1800’s, opium smoking was introduced into the U.S. by immigrant Chinese laborers. Smoked opium provided a much more pleasurable and quicker effect than it did when swallowed, because the drug entered the bloodstream directly from the lungs rather than through the digestive process. With introduction of syringe in 1853, morphine could now be injected directly into bloodstream. First widespread use of injected morphine was during the American Civil War (1861 -1865). During this time, morphine was used indiscriminately on injured soldiers. After the war, so many soldiers were addicted to morphine that addiction to the drug was often known as the “soldiers illness” or “army disease”. In 1874, heroin (diacetylmorphine) was synthesized from morphine by treating morphine with acetic anhydride. In 1898, the Bayer Chemical Company of Germany introduced heroin. In 1956, Heroin is outlawed in the U.S. By 1900, it was estimated that 250,000 to 400,000 Americans were dependent on narcotics. The abuse of opiate drugs, and their association with crime resulted in a series of laws to deal with the problem: 1906 - The Pure Food and Drug Act ended over-the-counter sales of medications containing heroin and other opiates. 1914 - The Harrison Narcotics Act regulated heroin manufacturing and distribution. 1922 - Medical doctors were no longer permitted to continue the common practice of providing heroin and other opiates to addicts. 1924 - Heroin production in the United States was outlawed. 1942 - Opium poppy cultivation in the United States was outlawed. 1956 - Heroin was outlawed and all remaining stocks of heroin were required to be surrendered to the federal government. Opiates and Opioids are both classified as narcotics, from the Greek word “narkitos”, meaning numbing. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) HEROIN (continued) Heroin is legally manufactured in England, with small amounts also produced in France and Belgium. England is the major consumer of legally produced heroin, but there is also limited use in Canada, Switzerland, and Belgium. Method of Extraction: 1. To release opium from seed pod, the farmer makes a series of shallow vertical or horizontal incisions across one or two sides of the seed pod. 2. Milky opium slowly bleeds from the incisions, turning from white to brown as it dries. 3. Following day, the farmer scrapes and collects the dried opium from the surface of the pod (pods may be incised 5-6 times before opium is depleted). 4. Once the opium is collected, the farmer sells it to a processor who extracts the morphine base (It takes approximately 1,000 poppies to produce one pound of crude opium. Ten pounds of opium will generally yield one pound of morphine). 5. Morphine treated with acetic anhydride to yield heroin. One to one proportions (heroin is approx. 4 times more potent than morphine with less side effects). Average Heroin Purity (1998): Gram - 58% Ounce - 57% Kilogram - 57%
Distribution: Air freight, international mail ships, ocean freight and marine vessels are all vehicles for the illegal transport of heroin into the U.S. Additionally, commercial flight passengers smuggle the drug in luggage, clothing, taped to their bodies, and even swallowed in balloons or condoms. Over one half of all DEA seizures occur in New York City metro area. Chains of distribution for Mexican heroin are centered in the southwest part of the U.S., particularly Los Angeles. The average purity of heroin sold in gram quantities in 1993 was 58%. Cutting Agents: Powdered White Heroin Powdered Brown or Tan Heroin 1. Quinine 7. Lactose 1. Coffee 2. Starch 8. Glucose 2. Chocolate 3. Powdered milk 9. Mannitol 3. Milk powder 4. Powdered vitamins 10. Sucrose 4. Cocoa mix 5. Caffeine 11. Procaine 5. Brown sugar 6. Phenobarbital DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) HEROIN (continued) Methods of Ingestion: Most common method of ingesting both powder and tar heroin is by injecting it into the vein (Add water and boil in spoon, use cotton to filter, lemon or lime juice to acidify mixture which aids in dissolving the heroin more readily). Before injecting the drug, the user may first draw an amount of blood back into the syringe, often called a “flag” or “back track”, to ensure that the needle penetrated the vein. The heroin is then usually injected in a series of small strokes to prolong the initial rush. Veins frequently used for injection develop scar tissue commonly known as tracks, turkey trots, marks, etc. To conceal injection sites, addicts often tattoo sites, wear long sleeved shirts, or use less noticeable veins, such as those of the legs, feet, groin, or other parts of the body. If the user misses the vein, the effects of the drug will be much less pronounced. Injecting into a muscle or just beneath the skin (skin popping) are often the methods used when veins in common injection sites have become collapsed or hardened due to repeated injections. However, injecting into a muscle or beneath the skin results in a greatly diminished effect. Snorting is becoming more popular due to AIDS and increased purities (northeastern U.S.), although less effect is felt. Heroin can also be smoked. In a method referred to as “chasing the dragon”,“dragon chasing”, or “foiling” heroin is placed on aluminum foil and heated from below with a match or cigarette lighter, and the resulting fumes inhaled. The life style of the heroin addict is typified by malnutrition and crime, collapsed veins and disease. Sharing of needles is common in the heroin subculture, resulting in AIDS, meningitis, hepatitis, and other diseases. Duration of Action: Approximately 4 to 6 hours for Heroin and Morphine. Withdrawal Effects - Abstinence Syndrome: Usually appear within 6 to 12 hours of last dose, compared to a bad flu. Symptoms peak about 24 to 72 hours after the last dose and then gradually subside and disappear within 7 to 10 days. Symptoms include: agitation and restlessness, stomach and muscle cramping, dilated pupils, yawning, sneezing, increased pulse rate and blood pressure, runny nose, goose bumps, watery eyes, insomnia, diarrhea, alternating chills and sweating, and depression. TREATMENT FOR HEROIN ADDICTS: Methadone The most widely accepted treatment for heroin addiction is methadone. Methadone is an opioid that was first produced in Germany during World War II to supplement their limited supply of morphine. Methadone was first marketed in the United States in 1947 as an analgesic under the trade name Dolophine. It was first used as a treatment for DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) HEROIN (continued)
narcotic-dependent individuals in the 1960s, and by the 1970s it had become widely accepted as an effective approach for the treatment of heroin addiction. Methadone is significant in the treatment of heroin addiction because the two drugs are pharmacologically similar. As such, methadone 1) prevents heroin withdrawal symptoms, 2) fulfills the addicts physical need for heroin, 3) at sufficiently high doses it blocks the effects of heroin through cross-tolerance, thus a fix of street heroin while undergoing methadone treatment will probably give no pleasurable effect, 4) it is a longer acting drug than heroin, the average dose lasting about 24 hours, making it more convenient to administer, 5) it is effective orally, thus breaking the reliance on the ritual of injection, and 6) it can be dispensed at an outpatient treatment center, enabling the heroin dependent individual to maintain a more conventional life style. Estimates indicate that, at best, only 20% of methadone patients remain off heroin. LAAM In 1993 the FDA approved LAAM (levo-alpha-acetyl-methadol) for the treatment of heroin dependency. LAAM is chemically related to methadone and its pharmacological effects are very similar. One important difference is that the effects of LAAM last from 48-72 hours rather than the 24 hour dosage period for methadone. This very important characteristic permits the reduction of clinic visits to only three times a week. Another drug that is sometimes used to treat heroin addiction is naltrexone (Trexan). At the proper dosage level, naltrexone blocks the effects of the opiate/opioid drugs for approximately three days. During this time, no effects would be experienced if heroin were consumed. A problem with naltrexone is that it cannot be given to an addict unless he has been drug free for at least 7-10 days, or the drug will cause almost immediate withdrawal symptoms. Combinations: Heroin + Cocaine = “SPEEDBALL” Heroin + Amphetamine = “FIREBALL” Heroin + Crack = “HOT ROCKS” Heroin + Freebase cocaine = “CHASING and BASING”
DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) HEROIN (continued) Packaging: Heroin is generally packaged in paper bindles, glassine or aluminum foil envelopes, or small balloons containing approximately 1/10 gram heroin (street value about $20). A heavy user of heroin may ingest the drug every four hours, using a total of about one gram each day. Due to a sticky consistency, tar heroin is generally packaged in cellophane or aluminum foil. Street Prices (1998): Gram - $70 - $400 (powder) $80 - $600 (black tar) Ounce - $2,500 - $15,000 (powder) $400 - $6,500 (black tar) Kilogram - $50,000 - $200,000 *prices vary depending on source and demand DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t)
2.BARBITURATES (Controlled Substance Schedule : II, III, and IV) Effect on CNS : Depressant General Side-Effects: The Barbiturate user often has the appearance of drunkenness without the odor of alcohol. For instance, he may appear drowsy and confused; his muscle control may be poor, resulting in poor coordination and staggering gait; slurred speech, memory impairment; and inability to concentrate. Pupils are usually slightly constricted but may be dilated with severe overdoses. The more alarming effects of reduced blood pressure, body temperature, and profound respiratory and cardiovascular depression can lead to coma and death. Dependence: - physical - moderate to high; psychological - moderate to high; tolerance - yes With the development of tolerance, the margin of safety between the effective dose and the lethal dose becomes very narrow. That is, in order to obtain the same level of intoxication, the tolerant abuser may raise his or her dose to a level that can produce coma and death. The toxic or lethal dose for barbiturates is essentially the same in addicts as in non-addicts. This differs from Heroin addiction, in which the Heroin addict can tolerate much larger doses than the non-addict. In other words, in Heroin addiction, with an increase in tolerance there is an increase in the lethal dose. In Barbiturate addiction there is little or no increase in the lethal dose. Since physical dependence results from the abuse of depressants, there is also a withdrawal syndrome. Withdrawal from non-narcotic depressants can be fatal and should be medically supervised. Generally, the symptoms which an officer would notice in a barbiturate user undergoing withdrawal would be similar to alcohol abstinence and include the following: weakness, apprehension, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, tremors, abdominal pain, insomnia and tachycardia. Hallucinations, delirium tremors, and life- threatening convulsions are possible. Appearance : various color capsules, tablets, injection Medical Use: daytime sedation, sleep aide (only 2 weeks), pre-anesthesia, long-term anticonvulsant therapy Street Names: downers, barbs, goof balls Source: Synthesized by pharmaceutical companies. Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market. Rarely produced in clandestine labs. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) BARBITURATES (continued) History: Discovered in 1864 by Adolf von Baeyer, a German chemist, who synthesized barbituric acid. Research led to the development of the first hypnotic derivative of barbituric acid, Barbital, in 1903. Classes of Barbiturates: Barbiturates are classified into 4 categories based on speed of onset and length of action. Category Duration Synergistic Effect With Alcohol: When used in conjunction with alcohol, the effects of Barbiturates are potentiated and can produce convulsions, coma or death. ex. 1 + 1 = 2 - Barbiturate alone 1 + 1 = 3 or 4 - Barbiturate + Alcohol consumption EXAMPLES Secobarbital (Seconal) - “REDS” Pentobarbital (Nembutal) - “YELLOW JACKETS” Amobarbital (Amytal) - “ROBIN’S EGGS” or “BLUES” Secobarbital + Amobarbital (Tuinal) - “DOUBLE TROUBLE” or “XMAS TREES” Most common method of ingestion is orally. Daily doses used by some addicts may be as high as 15 capsules of 100mg each, or 1500mg. The short-intermediate acting Barbiturates are the choice drugs of abuse due to the favorable length of time for onset of effects, the duration of action, and the production of euphoria by these drugs. Barbiturates were very popular in the first half of the century. However, concern about addiction potential and the ever-increasing numbers of fatalities associated with them led to the development of alternative medications. Today, only about 20% of all depressant prescriptions in the U.S. are for Barbiturates. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 3.BENZODIAZEPINES (Controlled Substance Schedule IV) Effects on CNS : Depressant Effects: euphoric high - this intoxicated state results in reduced inhibition and impaired judgment. Medical Use: daytime sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures. - In general, benzodiazepines act as hypnotics in high doses, as anxiolytics in moderate doses and as sedatives in low doses. Appearance : various color capsules, tablets, injection Dependence: physical - low to moderate; psychological-low to moderate; tolerance-yes - Prolonged use can lead to physical dependence even at recommended dosages. Unlike barbiturates, large doses of benzodiazepines are rarely fatal unless combined with other drugs or alcohol. - There are marked similarities among the withdrawal symptoms seen with all drugs classified as depressants. In its mildest form, the withdrawal syndrome may produce insomnia and anxiety, usually the same symptoms that initiated the drug use. With a greater level of dependence, tremors and weakness are also present, and in its most severe form, seizures and delirium. Unlike the withdrawal syndrome seen with most other drugs of abuse, withdrawal from depressants can be life-threatening. Although primary abuse of benzodiazepines is well documented, abuse of these drugs usually occurs as part of a pattern of multiple drug abuse. For example, heroin or cocaine abusers will use benzodiazepines and other depressants to augment their “high” or alter the side effects associated with over-stimulation or narcotic withdrawal. Approximately 50% of people entering treatment for narcotic or cocaine addiction also report abusing benzodiazepines. Source: Synthesized by pharmaceutical companies. Generally, legitimate pharmaceutical products are diverted to the illicit market (prescriptions, theft, etc.). Those individuals who abuse benzodiazepines often maintain their drug supply by getting prescriptions from several different doctors, forging prescriptions or buying diverted pharmaceutical products on the illicit market. Benzodiazepines account for about 30% of all prescriptions for controlled substances. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) BENZODIAZEPINES (continued) Examples (Short Acting): Examples (longer acting): Estazolam (Prosom) Alprazolam (Xanax) Flurazepam (Dalmane) Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Quazepam (Doral) Clorazepate (Tranxene) Temazepam (Restoril) Diazepam (Valium) Triazolam (Halcion) Halazepam (Paxipam) Lorazepam (Ativan) Oxazepam (Serax) Prazepam (Centrax) Midazolam (Versed) is available in the U.S. only in an injectable form for an adjunct to anesthesia. Clonazepam (Klonopin) is used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol – Schedule IV), which produces Diazepam-like effects, is becoming increasingly popular among young people (Date-Rape drug). Although flunitrazepam is legally marketed in 60 countries to treat severe insomnia, it does not have FDA approval in the U.S. and is listed as a Schedule IV drug under the CSA. It is smuggled in by traffickers (mainly from Mexico and Columbia). Commonly known on the street as “roofies”, “ropes”, “ropies”, and “roches”. Flunitrazepam is approximately ten times more potent than Valium and can cause memory loss. It is manufactured in one and two milligram tablets, which sell for between $5.00 and $10.00 each on the street. The tablets are round and white, with a single score on one side, and “ROCHE” and the number “1” or “2” encircled on the other side. Note: See handout 4. NON-BARBITURIC ACID DEPRESSANTS a. Methaqualone (Quaalude); Sch. I b. Glutethimide (Doriden); Sch. II (known as “loads” on the street) c. Chloral Hydrate (Noctec); Sch. IV (similar effects as seen with barbiturates – combination of alcohol and chloral hydrate is known as a Mickey Finn). Physical dependence to chloral hydrate is very similar to chronic alcoholism, but may develop within a matter of only two to three weeks of use. d. Meprobamate (Equanil/Miltown): Sch. IV
DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 5. Gamma Hydroxybutyrate or Gamma Hydroxy butyric acid (GHB) Hydroxybutyric acid lactone is the key ingredient in the production of GHB. It is available on the legitimate chemical market. CSA Schedule IV in Connecticut. Gamma-Butyrolactone (GBL) – CSA Schedule IV- it is an industrial and household solvent of acrylate polymers found in floor stripper; metabolized to GHB in the body. 1-4 butane diol – known as “BD” – declared Class I health hazard by FDA __________________________________________________________ Effects on CNS : Depressant In May 1999, the D.E.A. reported their documentation of over 3,500 GHB related overdoses and law enforcement encounters as well as 32 deaths associated with the product. GHB & GBL have been associated with cases of “date-rape” and sexual assault. What is GHB? GHB is a chemical that your body manufactures for its normal metabolism. It is also very similar to a natural chemical in your brain called Gamma Amino Butyric Acid, or GABA. GABA is the major substance in your brain that slows down or inhibits certain activities. GHB is thought to act like GABA, perhaps even at the same receptors. Effects: GHB is abused to induce a sense of euphoria and intoxication. It is frequently used in conjunction with alcohol to intensify its effects. The effects of GHB are dose related. One or two grams makes the user physically and mentally relaxed and encourages a reduction of social inhibitions. The person may appear intoxicated, have increased energy, happiness, talkative, desire to socialize, feel affectionate and playful, and have enhanced sexual experiences. The effects are felt within 5 to 20 minutes. Depending on the individual, this dosage may interfere with speech, balance, motor coordination, and may induce sleep. Depending on the dosage and individual, GHB can also cause nausea, headaches, drowsiness, dizziness, vomiting, seizure, amnesia, loss of muscle control, loss of consciousness, being conscious but unable to move, respiratory distress, and coma-like deep sleep. A dose of four to eight grams induces a very deep sleep, usually within 5 to 15 minutes. This sleep may also be so deep that it is impossible to wake DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) GHB & GBL - continued
the user and they may appear to be in a comma. This deep sleep may lasts 3 to 4 hours or forever (death). Medical Use: None; Illicit except for approved research involving various sleep disorders; CSA Schedule IV; Appearance : white powder, colorless liquid (although sometimes food coloring is added to disguise its identity), tablets or capsules. Source: GHB can be produced by following simple instructions available in publications and on the Internet (manufacturing kits are also available via the Internet). Labels on some of the suspect products refer to gamma butrolactone as “2(3H) – Furanone di-hydro.” The key ingredients, hydroxybutyric acid lactone and sodium or potassium hydroxide, are readily available on the open market. The end product is a liquid which contains 0.85 to 1.3 grams of GHB per teaspoon. The legal status of these kits is in a gray area. Street Names: G, Gamma-OH, Fantasy, Date rape drug, Easy Lay, gamma 10, GBH, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm (GBH), Liquid E, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, Nature’s Qualude, Organic Quaalude, Salty Water, Soap, Scoop, Water, Everclear, Great Hormones at Bedtime, G-Riffick, and Cherry Menth, . GHB-Like Substances: (They turn into GHB in your body) GBL (Gamma- Butyrolactone), BD, RenewTrient, Revivarant, Revivarant G, Revitalize Plus, GH Revitalizer, Gamma-G, Blue Nitro, Blue Nitro Vitality, Remforce, Invigorate, Enliven, Serenity, SomatoPro, Thunder Nectar, Weight Belt Cleaner, NRG3, and GHRE. History: GHB occurs naturally in the human body. It plays a key role in the functioning of the brain and nervous system. It initially gained popularity in the US among the bodybuilding community. It was believed that it acted as a growth hormone stimulant. Others used it as a sleep aid, and still others were taking it for the euphoric effects. GHB was originally marketed as a dietary supplement and sold primarily in health food stores in the 1980s. On November 8th, 1990, the FDA ruled that GHB was unsafe and that its use was illegal except in authorized physician supervised clinical trials. DEPRESSANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) GHB & GBL - continued
GHB has become a drug of choice at rave parties. There have also been reports of GHB being used as a “date rape” drug. According to the 1997 Household Survey On Drug Abuse, 3,300,000 Americans have tried GHB at least once. Availability: GHB is available as a clear, slightly salty tasting liquid or white powder (Although food coloring is sometimes added to the liquid to disguise its identity). The liquid is much more common than the powder (also some tablet and capsule formulations have been found). At rave dances and similar gatherings, it is usually sold by the capful or teaspoonful. Because the concentration of GHB is often unknown, the user may not be aware of the actual dose taken. The product is primarily used by high school and college aged individuals. The usual price is $5.00 to $10.00 per capful or “swig”. Over the Internet, it sells for about $95 for 32 ounces. Ingestion: GHB is always taken orally. The liquid form may be swallowed or added to another drink. The powder form is usually mixed with water or an alcoholic drink before being taken.
B. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS 1. COCAINE a. Cocaine HCL (powder) b. Cocaine Freebase c. Crack Cocaine 2. AMPHETAMINES a. Methamphetamine (clandestine labs - ICE) b. Methcathinone (CAT) c. Biphetamine (amphetamine & Dextroamphetamine - “black beauties”) d. Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine 5,10mg) e. Desoxyn (methamphetamine 10mg,15mg - “poor man’s coke”) 3. OTHER STIMULANTS Ritalin (methylphenidate 5,10,20mg - Schedule II) Prelu-2 (phendimetrazine 105mg - Schedule III) Plegine (phendimetrazine 35mg - Schedule III) Didrex (benzphetamine 50mg - Schedule III) Adipex-P, Fastin, Ionamin (phentermine 15,30,37.5mg - Schedule IV) Tenuate,Tenuate Dospan (diethylpropion 25 & 75mg - Schedule IV) Mazanor, Sanorex (mazindol 1mg & 2mg - Schedule IV)
STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 1. COCAINE (Controlled Substance Schedule: II) Stimulant controlled substance but classified as a narcotic. Appearance : fine white powder; flakes; small chunks or rocks Effects on Central Nervous System: Stimulant (super amphetamine); most potent stimulant of natural origin; addicting properties focus around the “pleasure centers” of the brain where basic instinctive drives such as hunger, thirst and sexual desires are reinforced. These drives are replaced with the drive to obtain more cocaine (Dopamine re-uptake blocker). Effects: Initial feeling of euphoria, increased alertness and intellectual functioning, greater confidence, more energy, hyperactive, very talkative, release of social inhibitions, and an overall feeling of power and confidence; vital signs include increased pulse rate, blood pressure, and body temperature; pupils become dilated; fatigue and appetite disappear. The feelings disappear quickly, however, as the cocaine level in the blood drops, usually within 30 to 60 minutes. After the high has worn off, dysphoria sets in; anxiety, apathy, insomnia, along with a general sense of negative feelings, plus a craving for more cocaine. Pulse rate and blood pressure drop to a point lower than normal. The user is often depressed, has a lack of energy and desire, and a craving for more cocaine. Various Side Effects in Abusers: Weight loss, insomnia, fatigue, headaches, nasal infections, sexual dysfunction and paranoia, and “coke bugs” or “snow bugs”. Excessive doses may cause seizures and death from convulsions, respiratory failure, or heart failure. Dependence: some physical dependence is possible; very high psychological Medical Use: local anesthetic for ear, nose and throat surgery (vasoconstrictor to limit bleeding); local effects last up to 2 hours. Street Names: Blow, dust, flake, nose candy, nose stuff, snow, toot, uptown, coke, Bernice, “C”, white, and white girl. Freebase form is referred to as base, hubba, roca, rock, crack, Roxane and white pipe. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued) Source: Cocaine is a natural alkaloid extracted from leaves of the Erythroxylon coca plant, indigenous to the Andes mountains of South America (proper elevation, temperature range and moisture requirements). This plant is cultivated exclusively in Peru, Bolivia and Columbia. The cocaine concentration in the leaf is approximately 1-2%. The coca plant is usually harvested three times each year, and in some cases as many as six times. History: For thousands of years inhabitants of the Andes mountains have chewed and brewed the leaves of the coca plant for their stimulating effects. The leaves of this plant have been used for centuries by South American Indians for social and religious occasions, for stamina, and to ward off hunger and fatigue. The practice continues to this day. Cocaine was first isolated in 1860 and used in eye surgery in 1884. Sigmund Freud was a proponent of cocaine and gave it to his patients, colleagues and his fiancee. He wrote and spoke extensively about its value in the treatment of depression, nervousness, alcohol and morphine dependence, and other ailments. The first death attributed to cocaine use was in 1886 (cardiac arrest). Freud, by then a long time habitual user himself, conceded in his final paper on the subject that cocaine causes rapid physical deterioration, as well as paranoia, hallucinations, and other severe psychiatric problems. Around the turn of the century, cocaine was used in many medications, often in combination with alcohol and opium. Cocaine preparations were a popular treatment for asthma and hayfever. Many soft drinks and soda fountain preparations contained cocaine, as did chewing gum and teas. Cigarettes and cigars containing cocaine were promoted by pharmaceutical companies as a medical cure for fatigue and as a source of increased vigor. In 1906, with the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act, the use of cocaine was restricted due to increased cases of abuse. In 1914, cocaine was labeled a narcotic substance under the Harrison Narcotic Act. Cocaine is still legally classified as a narcotic, although the common present day definition of a narcotic usually includes only those substances obtained from the opium poppy plant.
STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued) Method of Extraction: 1. Strip the leaves off the coca plant. 2. Sun dry several hundred pounds of leaves. 3. Take to “pasta Lab” which is generally located near growing area. 4. Leaves are shredded or mashed and placed in drums or plastic lined pits called maceration pits. 5. Water and a strong alkali, such as lime, are added to breakdown the leaves and release the cocaine. The mixture is left to soak for several days. A solvent such as kerosene or gasoline is added to the mixture to dissolve the cocaine. The kerosene/cocaine solution is pumped or drained from the pit for further processing. 6. Sulfuric acid is added to the kerosene. An alkali is then added and an intermediate product, cocaine sulfate, precipitates out and is filtered from the kerosene/sulfuric acid mixture. The cocaine sulfate is then dried. This form of cocaine is known as “paste” or “pasta” , and is relatively impure. 7. The paste is normally transported to Colombia for further processing in a “base lab”. 8. At base lab, paste is dissolved in water and sulfuric acid, and potassium permanganate is then added to remove impurities. 9. An alkali is added to precipitate the cocaine. The cocaine is then filtered out of the solution and dried. The product is cocaine base, which is not water soluble. 10. The cocaine base is then sent to a “crystal lab” for further processing. Most crystal labs are located in Colombia. 11. Cocaine is dissolved in acetone. Hydrochloric acid is added, which converts in cocaine base to cocaine hydrochloride. 12. Ethanol is then added to the acetone/hydrochloric acid mixture to precipitate the cocaine hydrochloride. 13. The solution is filtered to remove the cocaine hydrochloride, which is then dried. Note: The dried cocaine hydrochloride has a purity of up to 90%. This form of cocaine is water soluble and can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected intravenously. Two or three hundred pounds of leaves are generally required to produce one pound of the finished cocaine hydrochloride product. Markets for Coca Leaf: 1) Traditional market. Purchased by local people primarily for chewing. Also used as tea and in a number of food preparations. 2) Legitimate market. Coca leaves are an important source of flavoring agents. Medically, cocaine is used as a local anesthetic for ear, nose and throat surgery. 3) Illicit cocaine market. Vast majority of the coca leaf production. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued) Distribution: Estimated that the U.S. consumes at least 70% of this product. Most of the cocaine is smuggled out of South America by private aircraft operating off of numerous unapproved airstrips. The cocaine is flown to distribution points in the Caribbean, Mexico, or Central America to be reshipped to the U.S. A substantial portion of the cocaine reaching the U.S. arrives via smuggling routes that terminate in Southern California, Texas, Arizona, and Florida. Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston and Miami are the major staging areas and redistribution points. U.S. Shipments into these cities may weigh several hundred pounds or even several tons. The standard package for cocaine at this level is a kilogram (approx. 2.2 pounds). Cutting Agents for Cocaine: 1) Caine Cuts 2) Sugar Cuts 3) Stimulant Cuts a. Benzocaine a. Lactose (milk sugar) a. Ephedrine b. Lidocaine b. Dextrose (Glucose - Corn sugar) b. Caffeine c. Procaine c. Sucrose (table sugar) c. Phenylpropanolamine d. Tetracaine d. Amphetamine 4) Miscellaneous Cuts a. Mannitol (mild laxative) b. Inositol (white powder form of Vit. B) additive) c. Talc (face powder) d. Flour e. Corn starch (carbohydrate from corn) f. PCP (illicit hallucinogen) g. Quinine (treatment for malaria- bitter taste) Most cocaine is “cut”, “stepped on”, or “stretched” three or more times with other substances before it reaches the user. A “cut” is a substance that has the same physical appearance as cocaine, but costs much less. The cut is added to artificially increase the weight and volume of the cocaine and thus increases the dealers profits. Because of the cuts, the purity of cocaine declines with each step in the distribution chain. Cocaine purity drops from about 80% at the import level, to an average of about 64% at the gram or street level, however, the purity of individual samples vary widely. Most of the various cuts which are added to cocaine can be readily and legally purchased in paraphernalia shops, vitamin stores, and mail order outlets. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued) If the street dealer were to purchase 1/8 ounce (3.5 grams) of cocaine, typically referred to as an “eight ball” for $350, and add 1.5 grams of mannitol, worth pennies, it would increase the weight to 5.0 grams. At the street level, this amount would sell for roughly $100 per gram, or a total selling price of $500. Some cuts can be very dangerous to the user due to their insolubility in water. The user attempts to filter those out by passing the cocaine/water solution through a piece of cotton as it is drawn into a syringe. This method is crude and not very effective. FREEBASE: During the mid-1970’s a new form of cocaine appeared on the street called “freebase”. Unlike the hydrochloride form, freebase could be smoked without destroying its potency (temperatures required to vaporize cocaine hydrochloride powder for smoking destroy much of its potency). Typical process: cocaine + water > shake to dissolve > add few drops of ammonium hydroxide or other alkali > shake = cocaine freebase Ether is then added to solution > shake vigorously > freebase cocaine dissolves in ether Separate ether from solution and place in dish and allow to evaporate. The freebase cocaine crystals remain in the dish after the ether evaporates, and are ready to be smoked. Because many of the cuts that are present in cocaine hydrochloride are removed by this process, freebase is a purified form of cocaine. Generally prepared by the user. Remained popular until the early 1980’s, when another form of freebase appeared on the streets called “crack”. CRACK: Crack is also a form of freebase cocaine, but its production does not involve highly flammable chemicals. Generally prepared by the dealer. Crack is not a purified formof cocaine because it contains many of the cuts and other impurities that were present in the cocaine hydrochloride used in its preparation. Typical process: cocaine HCL + water + baking soda > mix thoroughly and either place in boiling pot of water or microwave oven to increase the speed of reaction. Remove heat source and place container in a refrigerator or a bowl of ice water. Remove crack from bottom of container and allow to dry. After the crack has dried, it is broken into small “rocks” that usually weigh 1/10 to 1/2gram each. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued) Methods Used By Dealers/Users To Help Determine Purity Of Cocaine: a) Appearance: Cocaine HCl is usually seen on the street in the form of a fine white powder, flakes, small chunks or rocks, or a combination of these forms. The powder is often called “duff”. Users generally view cocaine that has some rocks or chunks in the sample as being relatively pure because it is difficult to add a cut without first reducing the cocaine to powder form. Flake is generally considered to be the highest quality cocaine available, but is seldom seen on the street. Crack is almost always seen as an off-white or yellowish-white solid. Looks like chunks of soap or plaster. It may vary in size but is generally no larger than a small marble. It is a solid and is odorless. Crack has been named because of the crackling sound it makes when smoked or because larger pieces are “cracked” into smaller rocks. Crack is no longer soluble in water and cannot be dissolved and injected or pulverized and snorted. It can, however, be readily smoked. b) Taste: Many users taste cocaine before it is purchased. A small amount of powder is placed on the tongue to see how it tastes, and how quickly it numbs the tongue. Many of the local anesthetic cuts that are used cause an immediate numbing effect, unlike the comparatively slow numbing caused by cocaine. Purer forms of cocaine have a slight chemical taste. c) Feel: The buyer rubs a small amount of cocaine between the thumb and forefinger to determine the consistency and how readily it dissolves. Purer cocaine will normally dissolve rapidly, whereas many of the common cuts will remain intact and feel gritty while rubbed between the fingers. d) Snorting: Many users snort a sample of the cocaine in an effort to determine its quality. e) Foil or Flame Test: A small amount of cocaine is placed on a sheet of aluminum foil and held over a flame, causing the cocaine to melt and vaporize. Depending on the purity, the cocaine will usually leave a slight amber colored residue. Any cuts will leave various colored residues on the aluminum foil. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued) f) Clorox, Water, and Methanol Tests: Cocaine is placed in a glass containing clorox, water, or methanol. The buyer can determine the general purity of the cocaine and the presence of cuts by the manner in which the sample dissolves in these liquids. g) Solubility Test: A small amount of water is mixed with a small amount of cocaine. Because cocaine is water soluble, it will dissolve immediately when mixed with water. However, many of the cuts typically added to cocaine are not water soluble, or are less soluble than cocaine. Any particles remaining after being mixed with the water indicate the presence of a cut(s). h) Melting Point Test: Cocaine and the many cuts typically added to it have varied melting points. By utilizing a device that determines the point at which the cocaine sample melts, the buyer can determine the purity of the cocaine to within 5%. Melting Points in degrees Celsius: Cocaine freebase – 98 Cocaine hydrochloride – 187 Methamphetamine – 170 PCP – 243 Heroin – 173 MDMA – 148 Mannitol – 165 Lactose – 203 Ephedrine – 247 Vit. B powder – 224 Baking soda – 270 Quinine – 177 Caffeine – 237 Lidocaine – 127 Methods of Ingestion of Cocaine: 1) Cocaine hydrochloride (powder form): 1) inhaling or snorting into nostrils (most common method); 2) intravenous (don’t generally heat because readily soluable) Cocaine “lines” or “rails” are usually about 1/8” wide and 1” to 2” in length. A line generally contains 10 to 35 milligrams of cocaine. 2) Crack and Freebase: smoked in glass pipes Combined Effects: Cocaine + Heroin = “SPEEDBALL” STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) COCAINE (continued)
The combination of cocaine and alcohol can be particularly lethal. When these two drugs are used together, the liver synthesizes the metabolite cocaethylene. Current research indicates that this metabolite may enhance the effects of cocaine, and plays a major role in the large number of cocaine/alcohol related deaths. Cocaine can also be responsible for the dysfunction of the cardiovascular and central nervous system, resulting in seizures and convulsions, and death from respiratory or heart failure. The amount of cocaine required to cause the dysfunction and failure of these two systems is unpredictable and varies from individual to individual. A dose that would have little effect on a habitual user may cause an overdose for a first time user. Duration of Action: 1) Cocaine hydrochloride: when snorted the effects are felt within 3 to 5 minutes and the high lasts up to 60 minutes. When injected, the cocaine causes an intense rush within 15 to 30 seconds, and the high lasts about 30 minutes. 2) Crack or freebase: when smoked, cocaine quickly enters the blood stream through the lungs, and the effects are felt almost immediately. This very intense “rush” lasts for only about 10 to 15 minutes. Typical Street Price: 1 Gram = $100 (range $20 - $240) Note: One gram will produce about 20 snorting “lines” or “rails” 1/8 inch wide and 1 to 2 inches long. A line generally contains 10 to 35 milligrams of cocaine. 1 Ounce = $1000 (range $250 to $2,000) 1 Kilogram = $20,000 (range $10,000 - $36,000) Crack - $50 -$120 per gram; $500-$2,500 per ounce
2. AMPHETAMINES (Controlled Substance Schedule: II) Appearance: off-white fine powder (high quality methamphetamine), dark yellow or brown powder or sticky substance (lower quality methamphetamine), solid block appearance ( low quality meth. called soapstone, peanut brittle, or peanut butter), various tablets and capsules. Effects on Central Nervous System: Stimulant (effects almost identical to cocaine). (Note: One very important difference between amphetamine and cocaine: cocaine effects last 20 to 80 minutes ; amphetamines last 4 to 12 hours). Among the most potent drugs for reward and reinforcement. General Effects of Amphetamines: Increased energy and confidence level, sense of well being, increased alertness, excitation, talkativeness, irritability, insomnia, anxiety, bruxism (teeth grinding), rigid muscle tone, dry mouth, increased body temperature, loss of appetite, increased pulse rate and blood pressure, dilated pupils. Long term high dosage users may experience the feeling that bugs or insects are “crawling” under their skin (formication). The bugs are referred to as speed or crank bugs. Abusers can severely injure themselves by trying to dig or cut the bugs out. Chronic abusers of amphetamine may experience a psychosis called amphetamine delusional disorder or amphetamine psychosis. The individual may experience delusions, visual and auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and can become violent. The psychosis is almost identical to that caused by cocaine. Dependence: some physical dependence is possible ; very high psychological. Withdrawal symptoms due to psychological addiction start almost as soon as the high wears off and can include: severe depression, a decrease in energy and activity levels, insomnia, mental confusion, irritability, and a strong desire to again use the drug. Medical Use: Attention Deficit Disorder, Narcolepsy, severe obesity.
STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t)
AMPHETAMINES (continued) Street Names: Black beauties, crack meth, crank, cristy, crystal, dexies, go fast, ice, hearts, leapers, pep pills, speed, tweak, thrusters, ups, wake ups, uppers, wire, and zip. Source: legitimate prescription manufacturing, illegal clandestine labs. History: First synthesized in 1880’s. The first medical product containing amphetamine was the Benzedrine inhaler and it was marketed in 1932 to widen bronchial passages and help asthmatics breathe. Users discovered that not only did it dilate bronchials, but also relieved fatigue, increased energy levels, reduced the need for sleep and suppressed appetite. Available in tablet form in 1937 and was used extensively during World War II by Japan, the United States, Great Britain and Germany. The drug was given to combat troops, and to civilians in some of the countries, to fight fatigue and maintain alertness and energy levels. Prescribed as antidepressants and diet pills during the 1950’s and 1960’s. Estimated peak production of 12 billion tablets in 1971, a substantial portion of which was diverted to the black market. The Controlled Substance Act of 1970 placed restrictions on the manufacture, distribution and use of amphetamines (1972 production was 20% of 1971). Amphetamine abuse has declined since the 1960’s, but government estimates indicate that the drug is still used illegally by more than 1,750,000 Americans. Manufacture: Nearly all of the “amphetamine” on the street is methamphetamine, which is manufactured in illegal, or clandestine drug labs. Methamphetamine is the most prevalent clandestinely manufactured controlled substance in the U.S. Little training required and chemicals are inexpensive. Most of the labs are located in the west and southwest United States. It is estimated that 80% of all methamphetamine now sold in the U.S. is either manufactured in Mexico or produced in the U.S. by Mexican polydrug traffickers. METHODS FOR MANUFACTURING METHAMPHETAMINE: 1. Ephedrine Reduction This method uses ephedrine, red phosphorous, hydriodic acid, sodium hydroxide, and Freon. The key ingredient is ephedrine, which is widely used in over-the-counter decongestants. Ephedrine is now regulated under the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t)
Due to increased restrictions and reporting requirements on the sale of ephedrine, some of the smaller clandestine labs are now substituting pseudoephedrine, which is readily available as an ingredient in some over-the-counter medications (Sudafed). 2. P2P Amalgam Method For many years this was the most commonly used method until phenyl-2-propane (P2P) was designated as a Schedule II drug under the CSA in 1980. Chemicals include: P2P, methylamine, mercuric chloride, hydrochloric acid, aluminum, isopropanol, and sodium hydroxide. Because of the difficulty in obtaining the necessary chemicals, as well as the lengthy production time, fewer labs are using this process. In 1997, only 1.6% of the seized meth labs were using the P2P process. 3. Nazi Method It is believed that this is the process Germany used to produce methamphetamine in the latter stages of World War II (hence the name). In 1995, the DEA seized five meth labs using this method. By 1997, the number increased to 233, or 18% of all meth labs seized. This method is becoming more popular because the process is quick, there is little setup time, and the chemicals are easier to obtain. In addition to ephedrine, the process uses ether, sodium metal or lithium metal, and anhydrous ammonia. Common Cutting Agents for Methamphetamine: 1. Sodium bicarbonate 2. Lidocaine 3. Lactose 4. Mannitol 5. Procaine (or other similar substances) Ingestion: Snorted, smoked, taken orally, or injected. Beginners or occasional users often snort the drug (not used long term due to irritation caused to the nasal lining). Smoking it in a glass pipe is becoming increasingly popular (do not use metal screens as with other drugs). ICE, a very pure crystal form of methamphetamine, is usually smoked. Like heroin, amphetamines can be mixed with water and cooked in a metal spoon or similar device. Tolerance develops quickly and larger doses are needed to achieve the same high. Chronic abusers or “speed freaks” ingest more than 5,000 mg every 24 hours during a “speed run” lasting 3 to 5 days. At the end of the run the abuser “crashes” and may sleep STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t)
for one or two days. Depression then sets in, which could last for weeks unless amphetamines are taken, resulting in a repeat of the speed run - crash cycle. ICE (“glass” or “crystal meth”)
Ice is to methamphetamine as crack is to cocaine. Smokeable freebase form of dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride. First appeared in Far East and its manufacture is still centered in South Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. ICE has gained user acceptance in Hawaii and on the east and west coasts. Unlike crack, however, ICE is very pure (approx. 90% to 98%). Usually smoked in a glass pipe. Physical and mental effects similar to crack, however, the effects of ICE last for 8 to 16 hours (crack - 10 to 20 minutes).
Its appearance is very much like broken pieces of ice or glass. Also seen with a clear yellowish color as well. It is usually packaged in plastic bags or paper bindles. The gram price ranges between $200 to $450, the ounce price from $5,000 to $8,500, and the kilogram price $35,000 to $50,000. CAT (Schedule I)
CAT is the common street name for methcathinone, a drug closely related to methamphetamine. CAT first appeared as a street drug in the Soviet Union in the 1970s and continues to be a big part of the Russian drug culture. It first appeared in the U.S. in Wisconsin in 1991 and slowly spread across the midwest. Because of high abuse potential, methcathinone was placed in Schedule I in 1993. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are also the main ingredients used to manufacture CAT. Its use in the U.S. remains isolated, and the D.E.A. seized only six methcathinone labs in 1998. The final product is an off-white, yellowish, or brownish powder. The most common method of ingesting CAT is by snorting, but it may also be smoked, taken orally, or disolved in water and injected. The effects of CAT are similar to those of methamphetamine. Typical Street Prices: 1 gram - $50 to $120 Note: Prices above reflect 1998 survey. STIMULANT-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 3. PRESCRIPTION AMPHETAMINES - Schedule II Biphetamine (amphetamine & Dextroamphetamine - “black beauties”) Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine 5,10mg) Desoxyn (methamphetamine 10mg,15mg - “poor man’s coke”) 4. OTHER STIMULANTS Ritalin (methylphenidate 5,10,20mg - Schedule II) (Note: See handout) Prelu-2 (phendimetrazine 105mg - Schedule III) Plegine (phendimetrazine 35mg - Schedule III) Didrex (benzphetamine 50mg - Schedule III) Adipex-P, Fastin, Ionamin (phentermine 15,30,37.5mg - Schedule IV) Tenuate,Tenuate Dospan (diethylpropion 25 & 75mg - Schedule IV) Mazanor, Sanorex (mazindol 1mg & 2mg - Schedule IV)
C. HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS 1. MARIJUANA (Controlled Substance Schedule: I) Appearance Dried marijuana is typically a dull green or brownish plant-like substance. At the street level, marijuana is normally a mixture of leaves, buds, small twigs and seeds. Effects on Central Nervous System: Variable - euphoria, hallucinations, paranoia and abnormal thinking. Most Common Physical Effects - Acceleration of the heart rate for a period of 10 to 30 minutes after ingestion. The rate typically increases 30% to 50% over normal. - Moderate increase in blood pressure. - Reddening of the eyes. (The reddening may be reduced or eliminated by the use of eye
- Slight drop in body temperature. - Dryness of the mouth and throat. Heat blisters and a thick, whitish or green coating
may be apparent on the tongue and back of the throat if the marijuana was consumed by smoking.
Most Common Psychological Effects - Pleasant feeling of well being and euphoria. - Feeling of relaxation which often results in reduced physical activity. - Rapid mood changes between gregarious talkativeness and laughter and contemplative
- Increased sensory perception of sight, smell, taste, and hearing, along with a distortion
- Occasionally, feelings of sudden anxiety and panic. Some users have a slight psychedelic or hallucinatory experience. Marijuana also accentuates the feeling of hunger, causing an appetite often referred to as the “munchies”. Note: Studies indicate that marijuana may impair ones ability to operate a motor vehicle long after the visible effects of the drug have worn off.
Dependence: physical dependence - unknown ; psychological dependence - moderate HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) MARIJUANA (continued) Medical Use No accepted medical use. However, a majority of studies indicate that marijuana may be superior to traditional drugs in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. In addition, marijuana has shown a degree of effectiveness in treating glaucoma, easing muscle spasms associated with multiple sclerosis and spinalcord injuries, and appetite loss resulting from AIDS and cancer therapy. Much of the concern over marijuana as a medicine stems from the fact that it may adversely affect the body’s immune system in already severely ill patients. In addition, damage to the lungs and respiratory system caused by smoking marijuana (tar content is almost double that found in tobacco) is well documented. Street Names Astro turf, Acapulco gold, cannabis, dope, grass, hemp, home grown, j, jay, jane, junk weed, leaf, marijuana, Mary Jane, M.J., pot, reefer, roach, sinsemilla, smoke, stink weed, tea, Texas tea,Thai Sticks, THC, wacky weed, weed. Source Cannabis sativa (the hemp plant) grows wild throughout most of the tropic and temperate regions of the world. Prior to the advent of synthetic fibers, cannabis plant was cultivated for the tough fibers of its stem. Also cultivated indoors. The psychoactive effects of marijuana are attributed to a compound called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly known delta-9-THC or just THC. History Cannabis plant has been used throughout history for quality fiber obtained from the stalks of the plant to make rope and clothing, and its seeds were a source of food and oil. As a medicine, as early as 3000 B.C. in China and India as an anesthetic and appetite stimulant. Cannabis is not native to North America. It was introduced here by early settlers who brought seeds with them from Europe and began harvesting the plant for its fiber around the year 1600. By 1935, the federal government was becoming concerned about the abuse of marijuana and passed the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 which imposed heavy excise and transfer taxes, effectively eliminating the sale of marijuana for legitimate uses. Increased production again in 1942 to 1945 because fiber was vital to the war effort. Valuable source of pulp and fiber used in making paper, textiles, and rope.
HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) MARIJUANA (continued) Facts 1. 18,600,000 Americans reported using marijuana at least once within the past year(93); 2. Highest dollar value crop grown in America (domestic value of production - 20 to 28 billion dollars), well ahead of next most valuable crop - corn; 3. Most widely used and most familiar illicit drug; 4. It is estimated that in the early 1960’s, only about 3% of the American population between the ages of 18 and 25 had used marijuana. By early 80’s, roughly 70% of all people in America between the ages of 18 and 25 had used; 5. Legitimately grown in U.S. for scientific research. Such research has resulted in the development and marketing of Dronabinol (Marinol), a product containing synthetic THC, for the control of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy agents, and to stimulate appetite in AIDS patients; 6. Approximately 55% of marijuana consumed in U.S. is grown in Mexico and smuggled into this country (98% by vehicle, 2% by aircraft). Approx. 35% is home grown. The Plant: - serrated edge (saw like) -Cannabis sativa has both male and female plants -Resin is a sticky sap-like substance which is formed on the outer surfaces of the plant by very small glands. The resin contains the THC. -THC content in marijuana plants varies depending on nutrients, climate and genetics of the plant (0 to 30% THC). -Typical outdoor plant grown in U.S.: 6-12 feet tall; produces 1-5 lbs. of dried buds and smokeable leaves; mature between end of July and early October depending on latitude grown at and genetics of plant; grows wild throughout most of the tropic and temperate regions of the world. - Although some cannabis plants may live for several years, it is considered an annual. Matures in fall and develops potent buds which contain the seeds and pollen required to perpetuate the species after the plants die in the early winter. When grown under ideal light and climate conditions, plants may yield not only one, but two harvests of the flower clusters in a single year. -Crossbreeding has led to plants that require shorter growing periods and produce more buds with a higher percentage of THC. -In 1970, the average THC content of commercial marijuana was 1.5%; today it is 4.95%. -THC is produced by and stored in the plants resin glands. The resin glands are located on all parts of the plant, but the heaviest concentration, and the largest glands, are located on the buds and surrounding small leaves.
HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) MARIJUANA (continued) Duration of Action Onset within minutes ; peak 15-45 minutes ; duration 2-6 hours (depending on the individual and the dose) Price (1998 street)
HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 2. PCP (generic name Phencyclidine) Controlled Substance Schedule : II Appearance: In its pure form, it is a white crystalline powder that readily dissolves in water. If all impurities and chemicals used in the manufacturing process are removed, the end product is an odorless, metallic or bitter tasting, white powder or clear liquid. However, most PCP on the illicit market contains a number of impurities (as a result of makeshift manufacturing) causing the color to range from tan to brown, the consistency from powder to a gummy mass, and generally PCP has a strong odor. In liquid form the color can range from clear to yellowish. PCP is seen in tablet, capsule, powder, and liquid forms (powder and liquid forms most popular). Effects on Central Nervous System : variable ; Hallucinogen General Effects: PCP is a dissociative anesthetic - user is aware of what is happening, but does not feel involved either physically or emotionally; removed from body. User perceives themselves as an observer to their own actions. Actions are difficult to predict and the user does not feel any pain. No medical evidence to indicate that PCP increases the users strength, despite stories of superhuman feats. At the appropriate dosage, PCP causes a total loss of sensitivity to pain, and in this condition the user is capable of feats that astound the observer (Running on two broken legs, ignoring severe burns, pulling out their own teeth, etc.). Because of these effects, an individual under the influence of PCP can be extremely dangerous and should be approached with caution.
Dosage up to 5mg - result in drunken state with slurred speech, numbness, and depression, often followed by stimulation. Dosage up to 10mg - more pronounced and difficult to predict - loss of sensitivity to pain, inability to talk or slurred speech, increased blood pressure and heart rate, sweating, vomiting, agitation and combative behavior, muscle rigidity, lack of coordination accompanied by a sense of strength and invulnerability, pronounced nystagmus (rapid and involuntary eye movements), distorted mental images and a stupor or coma state. Auditory hallucinations, image distortion, psychosis similar to schizophrenia are also common. HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) PCP (continued) Above 20mg - users life may be in danger - convulsions, respiratory depression, cardiovascular instability, and prolonged coma, possibly death. Regular Use: alters memory, perception, concentration, and judgment. User may show signs of paranoia, fearfulness, and anxiety. Dependence: physical - unknown; psychological - high; tolerance - yes Medical Use : None; However still used legitimately in research Street Names: Ace, Angel dust, animal tranquilizer, dust, dead on arrival, DOA, elephant, embalming fluid, hog, jet fuel, juice, killer joints, lovely, monkey, ozone, PCP, rocket fuel, supergrass, tac, tic, trank, and wack. Source: Clandestine labs Manufacturing: The illicit process of manufacturing PCP is relatively simple and generally uses the following chemicals: Bromobenzene, Cyclohexanone, Anhydrous ether, Pentamethylene dibromide, Phenylmagnesium bromide, Piperidine, Sodium or potassium cyanide, and Sodium metabisulfite. Of these chemicals, piperidine is the most important in the production of PCP. Piperidine is also the most difficult of the above chemicals for the street chemist to obtain because its distribution is controlled by federal law. It is a clear liquid that has an odor similar to pepper, and is legitimately used as a solvent, as an ingredient in certain fuels and oils, and in the production of rubber. Any quantity of piperidine in excess of 500 grams that is purchased from chemical supply houses must be reported to the DEA. If piperidine cannot be obtained by the street chemist, he may substitute with pyrrolidine. Pyrrolidine is easier to obtain than piperidine, and produces the Schedule I PCP analogue PHP (1-(1- phencyclohexyl)pyrrolidine). HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) PCP (continued)
PCP Bucket Process:
Bucket #1 Bucket #2 Piperidine Cyclohexanone 1-piperidinocyclo- + + hexanecarbonitrile
Sodium or Potassium + Sodium Metabisulfite = (PCC) Cyanide Ice for + + cooling Distilled Water Distilled Water
(produced by reacting Bromobenzene = PCP with Magnesium Turnings in Anhydrous Ether) Source: Department of Justice History: Developed by the Parke-Davis Company in 1957 for use as a general anesthetic. Upon coming out of anesthesia, patients experienced delirium, delusions, visual disturbances, and varying degrees of psychotic behavior. Researchers were unable to eliminate these postoperative side effects and, consequently, PCP was never marketed to the health care industry. In 1967, Parke Davis introduced PCP to the veterinary industry for use in anesthetizing large animals. It was marketed under the trade name Sernylan. In the same year, the first documented illicit use of the drug occurred at a music festival in the San Francisco Bay area. It was distributed under the name PeaCe Pill. Abuse of the drug continued through the late 1970’s, and in 1978 it was changed from Schedule III to Schedule II. Shortly thereafter, legitimate manufacturing of the drug was discontinued. HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) PCP (continued) Distribution: PCP is popular in low income areas because it is relatively inexpensive and provides a long lasting high. Manufacturing and distribution is generally controlled by inner-city gangs, and its use is most prevalent in the larger cities on the east and west coasts. In New York, PCP is most prominently available in the Harlem area, which has been dubbed by some as the “Dust Bowl”. Notable quantity in New York originates in California. At the retail level, liquid PCP is usually available in small glass vials or jars. It is usually a pea green or yellowish color. The powder form of PCP is usually packaged in aluminum foil or plastic bags. It can also be sold in PCP laced cigarettes ready for smoking. PCP has been sold under such brand names as “Bart Simpson”, Lethal Weapon”, “Crazy Eddie”, and “Purple Rain”. A mixture of PCP + Crack is referred to as a “Space Ball”, “Space Base”, or “WHACK”. Methods of Ingestion: PCP may be smoked, snorted, injected or swallowed. Smoking is the preferred method of using the drug (approx. 75%). PCP is generally prepared for smoking by dissolving it in acetone, ether or other volatile liquids. It can then be sprayed or soaked onto parsley leaves, mint, oregano or marijuana. The solution is permitted to evaporate, leaving the PCP laced vegetable matter. PCP in powder form is often sprinkled on marijuana and rolled into a joint. Another method is to dip a cigarette or joint into PCP liquid (approx. 1cc per cigarette). Cigarettes with dark brown paper are generally used to conceal the discoloration produced by the soaking. This type of PCP laced cigarette is called a “Sherm”, “Shermie”, “Sherman”, or “Sherman Stick” (Approximate cost = $20 each). This method is very common. Onset and Duration of Action: onset - within 2 to 5 minutes (smoked) peak - 15 to 30 minutes duration - 1 hour up to 8 hours (avg. 4-6 hours)
HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) PCP (continued)
PCP is stored in fat cells of the body and released gradually over time. Because of this, flashbacks can occur days, weeks or months after the last use. Unlike other hallucinogens, PCP flashbacks are true chemical flashbacks caused by residual amounts of the drug remaining in the body, and are not merely psychological. Street Prices: 1 ounce of powder - $800 to $3,000; 1 ounce liquid - $100 to $3,000; 1 envelope - $8 to $10 1 gallon - $4,500 to $10,000 1 full length cigarette saturated with PCP liquid (1cc) - $5 to $25 Note: Department of Justice – Reflect 1997 prices
HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 3. KETAMINE Controlled Substance Schedule : State of Connecticut - Schedule III Street Name: Special K, Super K, K, Kit Kat, Vitamin K, and Ket Brand Names: Ketalar, Ketaset, Ketaved, and Vetalar
Derivative of PCP and is classified as a dissociative anesthetic. It was discovered in 1961 and is a rapid acting anesthetic used to control severe pain, especially pain from burns. It is also used as a short acting anesthetic and is the anesthetic of choice in veterinary procedures. Ketamine is manufactured in liquid form and packaged in vials under the brand names Ketacet,Ketaject and Ketalar (used by doctors for surgical procedures) and sold to hospitals, physicians andveterinarians. Effects: Relaxation, decrease in tension and anxiety, hallucinations, sexual stimulation, mind/body separation (dissociative anesthetic) - so the patient does not respond to pain, disorientation, loss of balance and coordination, dizziness, and nausea. Ketamine also acts like a psychedelic. Colors and sounds are intensified and lead to confusion in thinking. Larger doses can create delusions, illusions, and even visual images when the user’s eyes are closed. These are the same effects that may be produced when a patient regains consciousness after surgery. Large doses of the drug can lead to respiratory problems, render a person incapable of moving, or, cause vomiting or convulsions. Ketamine is very popular with young people who patronize the night club circuit (especially all-night dance parties, or “raves”). In 1985, the New York Daily News reported that scores of women were subdued by a powerful animal anesthetic at nightspots. Victims voluntarily took the powdered form of the drug mistakenly believing it was cocaine. Among the items seized at all-night rave clubs were glass tubes filled with Special K. Club employees were found to be distributing bottled water to the teens so they could mix Special K with the water to drink it without attracting attention to the public. The objective is to ingest just enough of the drug to approach total anesthesia and then experience the hallucinations brought on during the recovery. Users refer to the point at which one looses their primary senses as the “line dose”. Depending on the dosage and method of ingestion, the period of hallucinations can last as long as two hours, with HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) KETAMINE (continued) complete recovery within 4-6 hours (Some users report poor motor coordination for periods of up to 24 hours after ingestion). Nearly every user has different psychological manifestations or hallucinations. For some it is a pleasant dream-like state with vivid images. Some experience a “near death experience” or NDE. They feel their spirit has left the body and they are in a different world, or a different plane. Users refer to this mind-body separation as the “k-hole” or “k- state”. Others experience fear, confusion and delirium. Source and Ingestion: Upon receipt of the Ketamine, diverted from hospitals and veterinary clinics, the dealer or recreational user carefully evaporates the liquid. This leaves a white powder similar in appearance to cocaine. The powder can be snorted like cocaine or mixed with a liquid and swallowed. When snorted or swalled, the effects of ketamine begin within five to ten minutes. The liquid can also be injected intramuscularly (Note: I.V. use would cause rapid anesthesia and the patient would become unconscious within 30 seconds). When injected intramuscularly, the effects are generally felt within two to five minutes. The liquid can also be placed on vegetable matter and smoked. Packaging : In its powder form, Ketamine is packaged in plastic bags or capsules, and it is easily mistaken for cocaine, heroin, or crystal methamphetamine. For human use, ketamine is available in 20ml vials with a concentration of 10mg per ml, 10ml vials of 50mg per ml, and 5ml vials of 100mg per ml. Ketamine designed for veterinary use is available in 10ml vials of 100mg per ml. The liquid may vary in color from clear to yellow. Street Price: On the legitimate market, a vial of ketamine will sell for $7 to $15 each. On the street the same vial sells for $50 to $200. 4. ILLY (Refer to handout) HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) 5. LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide) Controlled Substance Schedule: I Appearance: LSD is odorless, colorless, tasteless, and water soluble. It is one of the most potent psychochemicals known to man. In its pure form, it is crystalline. One gram of crystal LSD can produce 10,000 to 20,000 “hits”. The drug is then transformed into such ingestible forms as blotter paper, tablets (microdots), thin squares of gelatin (window panes), or liquid, which can be sprayed on sugar cubes or mixed in drinks. EFFECTS - CNS: Hallucinogen Effects of an equivalent dose varies from person to person, and even from dose to dose for the same individual. An individuals mental state, surroundings (setting), and dosage strength all play a role in the intensity of the high, and whether or not it will be a good trip or a “bummer” or bad trip. Physical: Dilation of pupils, salivation, increased blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, increased temperature and respirations. Mental: Distortion of sensory perception, along with impaired judgement. Vivid hallucinations. Visual perception is often distorted, as well as the user’s sense of distance and time. If the trip is a “bummer”, the user can experience extreme fear, anxiety, and paranoia. The individual is at risk of physical injury by reacting in a state of panic. The usual treatment for a bad trip is to “talk down” the individual. Often times there is a sharp increase in the perception of sound and color. These two senses can become crossed to the point where color is “heard” and sound is “seen”. This effect is known as synesthesia and is common in trips resulting from the ingestion of higher doses of LSD. “Flashbacks” are a spontaneous and fragmentary recurrence of a previous LSD trip, and may occur days, weeks, months, or years after the last usage. They occur after the effects of the drug have worn off, and the user has returned to normal. The flashbacks may last for only a few seconds, or for a much longer period of time, and may be pleasurable or frightening. The exact cause of the flashback phenomenon is unknown. HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) LSD (continued) Dependence: Physical - none; Psychological - unknown; Medical Use: None Street Names: Acid, blotter, blotter acid, blue heaven, California sunshine, cube, D, dose, big D, dot, L, microdot, paper acid, royal blue, Sandoz, sheet acid, sid, spots, sunshine, ticket, and window pane. Source: Most clandestine labs are located in northern California, with San Francisco serving as the central distribution point. It is relatively easy to conceal a major LSD laboratory because of the small quantities of raw materials and finished product. While small producers are occasionally encountered, it is believed that a small group of individuals, perhaps as few as ten people, manufacture nearly all the LSD produced in the United States. The lab does not have to produce on a continual basis; one batch can supply the market needs for several months or more. Lysergic acid is the key ingredient in the manufacture of LSD. Lysergic acid is found in morning glory seeds and can also be obtained by processing alkaloids from the ergot of the fungus claviceps purpurea (grows on rye and other grains). Chemical process to produce LSD is complicated and involves the use of dangerous chemicals. The manufacturers usually sell the LSD crystals to a limited number of multi-gram dealers, who in turn sell to gram dealers. The gram dealers convert the crystals to a liquid form, which is the placed on blotter paper, or into other retail sales forms, and sell to local wholesalers in quantities of 100 to 1000 doses. The local wholesalers in turn sells to retailers, generally in doses of 100 or less. Many of the transactions between dealers, wholesalers, and retailers are handled through the mail. The LSD is included in parcels sent to a post office box or temporary address established by the recipient. This process tends to insulate the manufacturer and multi- dealers from detection by law enforcement. Potency of LSD on the streets since 1960’s has declined (1960’s = 100 to 300mcg; 1990’s = 20 to 80mcg) Note : 25mcg is equal to a few grains of salt. Generally, 100mcg is the threshold needed to trigger a classic LSD experience, however, 25mcg is considered the normal dosage level that can induce a hallucinogenic effect. Average LSD potency in 1996 was 51.3%. Frequent LSD abusers may require 1,000 mcg or more for desired effect. HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) LSD (continued)
History: The drug was first synthesized in 1938 by the Swiss scientist Albert Hofmann. Hofmann was working for Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland, investigating derivatives of the alkaloids of the ergot of claviceps purpurea, a fungus which grows on cereal grasses, particularly rye. Several medical drugs had already been produced from the alkaloids of the ergot. It was hoped that the 25th derivative to be studied, lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD-25, would prove to be a circulatory stimulant. The drug did not appear to have any medical applications and was set aside for 5 years. While again working with LSD-25 in 1943, a small amount of the solution came in contact with Hofman’s skin, and somehow entered his system. Within a short time, Hofman experienced hallucinations which he attributed to LSD. The U.S. military was interested in its possible application to mind control, and conducted studies from the early 1950’s thru the mid 60’s. LSD failed to live up to scientists expectations and serious investigation gradually gave way to society’s abuse of the drug. LSD was outlawed in 1965 and put into schedule I. About LSD: - In the 1960’s it took root on college campuses and it is still there today. - Highest use of LSD occurred during the period 1965 through 1968. - The 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse indicated that 16,760,000
Americans have used LSD at least once (This figure represents 7.8% of the U.S. population over age twelve, and reflects a substantial increase over the 1985 survey figure of 4.4%).
- The 1998 “Monitoring The Future” study indicated that 12.6% of all high school
- In recent years LSD has become one of the drugs of choice at “rave parties”, along
- LSD is a super potent, semisynthetic hallucinogenic drug. It is so potent that
doses are measured in micrograms (a microgram is one millionth of a gram). For comparison, a one cent penny weighs about 2.8 grams. An equivalent weight of pure LSD would contain about 56,000 doses of 50mcgs each. One ounce of pure LSD is enough for 567,000 hits of 50mcg each; one pound is enough for 9,000,000 hits.
- Colorless, odorless, tasteless
HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) LSD (continued)
At The Retail Level: LSD is generally available in liquid doses, on sugar cubes, toothpicks, tablets and capsules, very small tablets (“microdots”), thin gelatin squares (“window panes”, “clear light”, or “contact lens”), and paper (blotter paper). Nearly all retail sales of LSD are in the blotter paper form (Blotter paper can be readily purchased at many art and office supply stores and is almost always found at the street level wrapped in plastic or cellophane). The LSD is dissolved and diluted in alcohol, and the blotter paper is dipped into the solution. Generally, the blotter paper is perforated into small squares called “tickets”, and is stamped with unique pictures, designs, or characters as a trademark of the distributor. A “sheet” of blotter acid normally consists of 100 perforated squares, and a “book” 1,000 squares. The liquid is sometimes kept in food coloring containers (green and blue seem to be the most popular) or small, dark colored glass vials. In this manner, the liquid can be placed directly on the tongue for absorption, but may also be dripped into the eye. Because sunlight will degrade LSD potency, it is normally wrapped in plastic or cellophane and stored in plastic film cannisters or other opaque containers for protection. LSD also begins to degrade when placed on paper. Therefore, blotter paper cannot be impregnated far in advance of its use, and must be prepared close to the consumer market. Method of Ingestion: LSD is normally taken by placing a square or ticket of blotter paper on the tongue. The LSD is dissolved by the saliva and absorbed through the mucus membrane. This method of ingestion produces the most rapid effects. LSD can be mixed with liquids, consumed with foods, or added to pills or sugar cubes, and is readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. LSD can also be absorbed directly through the skin It can also be injected or absorbed through the eye (breaking the blood barrier). LSD is destroyed by high heat and cannot be ingested by smoking. The major portion of the LSD is expelled from the body in about 3 days. However, some remains in the frontal lobes of the brain and is reintroduced into the person’s system at a later date (Flashback). Two things that will destroy the potency of LSD: 1. Light 2. Heat Therefore, LSD is often stored in a cool and dark environment. HALLUCINOGENIC-TYPE DRUGS (Con’t) LSD (continued) Street Price: 1 hit = $1 to $10 ; average $2 to $5 1 x 100 sheet = $35 to $80 (tablets approx. same price as blotter)
BLUE STAR HOAX : False rumor originated in early 1980’s which warned parents that LSD was being sold in the form of children’s washable transfer tattoos. Warned parents that the LSD can be absorbed through the skin. Warning letters sponsored by police officials or parents’ groups have appeared often. However, no LSD-laden “tatoo” has ever been recorded, though hundreds of incidents of the “Blue Star Hoax” have been documented.
DRUG & THERAPEUTICS LETTER A Quarterly Bulletin from Drug Information Unit (DIU) Department of Clinical Pharmacology Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu ________________________________________________________________ _______ January - March 2007 ______________________________________________________________________ W
necesarios trabajos de mantenimiento e inspección, el comprador deberá efectuarlos oportunamente,El comprador no podrá pignorar ni transferir a título de garantía la mercancía bajo reserva de dominio. El comprador deberá comunicar al proveedor, sin dilación alguna, cualquier caso de embargo, prenda-Adjudicación del pedido, condiciones especialesciones o demás actos de disposición o