Reading Material 4-7
You probably already know that a viselike pressure in the chest is the most common
physical sign of a heart attack. You may even be aware that the body sometimes has the pain of a heart I attack, sending to the neck, jaw or arms. But do you know the second, third or fourth most common sign of a heart attack? You should. According to a study in Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), recognizing the less common signs of a heart attack could save your life or that of someone you love.
Speed makes a difference. Heart-attack victims who don't experience chest pain
typically put off going to the hospital — by an average of two hours, the JAMA study found. When these patients finally show up at the emergency room, it often takes doctors longer to make the right diagnosis. Their heart isn't getting potentially life-saving treatment with clot-busting drugs, or emergency angioplasty. These delays help explain why a heart-attack patient who doesn't experience chest pains is twice as likely to die at the hospital as someone who does.
By studying a computerized data of more than 430,000 people who suffered heart
attacks across the U. S., it was determined that there are six major risk factors that increase the chances that any heart attack you suffer will be atypical. These six risk factors include; having a weak heart (from congestive heart disease), diabetes or a history of stroke; being 65 or older, female or from a minority group. The increased risk is cumulative: If a 75-year-old black woman has a heart attack, her chances of experiencing chest pain are less than 50%.
Apparently diabetics feel less pain because of nerve damage caused by their condition,
but no one knows why women or the elderly are more likely to suffer painless heart attacks. So what, besides chest pain, should you watch for? Probably the next biggest tip-off is extreme shortness of breath. Indeed, many cardiologists consider difficulty breathing to be as good an indicator of a possible heart attack as chest pain. Other less specific signs include nausea, profuse sweating and fainting. Some heart-attack victims describe a sudden, overwhelming sense of doom or feel pain under their scapula.
Be particularly suspicious of any "heartburn" that gets worse if you walk around or
otherwise exert yourself physically. Don't try to drive yourself to the hospital. Call an ambulance. Then, if you think of it, chew on an aspirin; 325 mg is the recommended dose, and chewing gets the drug into the bloodstream faster. A single tablet can stave off some of the damage. Above all, don't tell yourself, "I can't be having a heart attack; I'm not feeling any chest pains." Let a doctor make the final call. 1. According to the first paragraph, the common signs of a heart attack does NOT include_____.
2. What does "Speed makes a difference." in Para. 2 mean?
A. Haste can help distinguish between heart attacks and other diseases. B. Speed can help save the patient's life when suffering a heart attack.
C. Doctors should make the right diagnosis with high speed. D. Patients should adopt different speeds to go to hospital.
3. Which of the following will experience the LEAST chest pain when having a heart attack?
A. A 67-year-old man who has a history of stroke for 5 years. B. A 30-year-old lady who is always sweating and fainting. C. A 67-year-old black woman who has diabetes since her birth. D. A 40-year-old sportsman who suffers arms' pain very often.
4. We can infer from the text that_______.
A. diabetics will feel less chest pain because their nerves are hurt by their heart
B. people are clear about why ladies or the elderly suffer less chest pain in a heart
C. many common signs should be taken seriously when suffering a heart attack D. extreme shortness of breath is as good a sign of a possible heart attack as chest
5. Which of the following measures can a person take if he suffers a heart attack?
A. Take an aspirin down with water. B. Attempt to drive himself to the hospital. C. Help himself to be a little optimistic. D. Take it seriously and call an ambulance.
Research has uncovered that culture is a determining factor when interpreting facial
emotions. The study reveals that in cultures where emotional control is the standard, such as Japan, focus is placed on the eyes to interpret emotions. Whereas in cultures where emotion is openly expressed, such as the United States, the focus is on the mouth to interpret emotion.
Across two studies, using computerized icons and human images, the researchers
compared how Japanese and American cultures interpreted images, which conveyed a range of emotions. "These findings go against the popular theory that the facial
expressions of basic emotions can be universally recognized," said University of Alberta researcher Dr. Takahiko Masuda. "A person's culture plays a very strong role in determining how they will perceive emotions and needs to be considered when interpreting facial expression."
These cultural differences are even noticeable in computer emoticons, which are used
to convey a writer's emotions over email and text messaging. Consistent with the research findings, the Japanese emoticons for happiness and sadness vary in terms of how the eyes are depicted, while American emoticons vary with the direction of the mouth. In the United States the emoticons:) and; -) denote a happy face, whereas the emoticons; (or:-( denote a sad face. However, Japanese tend to use the symbol (V) to indicate a happy face, and ( ;_;) to indicate a sad face.
When participants were asked to rate the perceived levels of happiness or sadness
expressed through the different computer emoticons, the researchers found that the
Japanese still looked to the eyes of the emoticons to determine its emotion." We think it is quite interesting and appropriate that a culture that tends to mask its emotions, such as Japan, would focus on a person's eyes when determining emotion, as eyes tend to be quite subtle," said Masuda. "In the United States, where overt emotion is quite common, it makes sense to focus on the mouth, which is the most expressive feature on a person's face."
These findings are published in the current issue of The Journal of Experimental Social
Psychology. The results also suggest the interesting possibility that the Japanese may be better than Americans at detecting "false smiles". If the position of the eyes is the key to whether someone's smile is false or true, Japanese may be particularly good at detecting whether someone is lying or being "fake". However, these questions can only be answered with future research. 6. It is revealed in a study that______.
A. eyes are used to control emotions B. mouth is used to express emotions C. facial emotions vary with cultures D. culture determines facial emotions
A. facial emotions can be universally interpreted B. culture determines how one perceives emotions C. human images convey a wide range of emotions D. culture should be considered in interpreting emotions
8. It is obvious that emoticons are_______.
A. more noticeable than human images B. icons used to convey human emotions C. used much more in Japan than in America D. used to denote happiness rather than sadness
A. eyes are less used to express overt emotions B. eyes are usually depicted to indicate a happy face C. the Japanese is particularly good at detecting "false smiles" D. the Japanese is good at detecting whether someone is lying
10. It can be inferred from the text that culture______.
A. primarily focuses on the eyes to interpret emotions B. tends to focus on the mouth to interpret emotions C. plays a key role in determining facial emotions D. is a key to interpreting facial emotions
Clinical Rounds Women’s Health I N T E R N A L M E D I C I N E N E W S • S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , 2 0 0 5 D R U G S , P R E G N A N C Y , L A C T A T I O N B Y S H A R O N W O R C E S T E R The autoimmune disorder traindicated in pregnancy. Exposure ofS T. P E T E B E A C H , F L A . — A total of228 adverse e
Ayudar a morir Confronting an ill society: David Widgery, general practice, idealism and the chase for change (en colaboración con Patricia E. Hutt y Roger Neighbour), Londres, 2004 Family violence in primary care (en colaboración con Stephen The mystery of general practice , Londres, 1996 Ayudar a morir fue publicado originalmente por Radcliffe bajo el título Matters of life and