Tia (transient ischaemic attack) protocol
TIA (Transient Ischaemic Attack) Protocol
Use only if symptoms < 24 hrs and completely
If brain imaging shows haemorrhage, use Main Stroke Protocol.
For supporting information e.g. images & documents, refer to web site at: http://nbsvr73/medicine/StrokeService/StrokeProtocol.html
Seek specialist advice for all patients
In patients presenting within 1 week of symptom onset
STRATIFY RISK OF STROKE AFTER TIA
Use ABCD2 score (see box below & web site
)Risk is highest in the first 24 hours
: Nearly half of strokes occurring ≤ 30 days from TIA
occur within 24 hrs.High risk patients need to be seen within 24 hours of symptom onset
If high risk patients cannot be seen in TIA clinic within 24 hours, admit to ward 106
High risk patients include:
- Crescendo TIAs or >1 TIA in 1 week- ABCD2 score 4 or more (see Box).
ANTI-PLATELETS and ANTICOAGULATION
Warfarin should generally be used to treat atrial
Annual risk of stroke without
fibrillation in all patients with TIA without
(see web site
contraindications to anticoagulation.
In patients on, or potentially eligible for warfarin:
- Rule out intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH)
- Once ICH excluded, warfarin can be initiated
Estimated average annual risk of
- Give aspirin 75 mg od and clopidogrel 75 mg od
recurrent stroke +/- treatment
until INR therapeutic (and for at least 5 days)
In patients in whom warfarin is contraindicated:
- In patients presenting < 48 hours from symptom
onset, give aspirin 300 mg + clopidogrel 300 mg
single dose immediately, followed byaspirin 75 mg od and clopidogrel 75 mg od indefinitely.
- In patients presenting 48 hours or more from symptom onset omit loading doses of
aspirin and clopidogrel, and give aspirin 75 mg od and clopidogrel 75 mg od indefinitely.
No atrial fibrillation
Patient presenting < 48 hours from symptom onset or high risk (e.g. ABCD
4, see above):
Aspirin 300 mg + clopidogrel 300 mg single dose immediately, then aspirin 75 mg od +
clopidogrel 75 mg od for 1 month, then Asasantin one tablet twice daily for 2 years, then
aspirin 75 mg daily.
If patient presents outside 48 hours and lower risk
Aspirin 300 mg for remainder of first 2 weeks from onset, then Asasantin as above for 2 years followed by aspirin 75 mg daily.
Use clopidogrel 75 mg od monotherapy in place of Asasantin if tablets need crushing
e.g. dysphagia (in preference to immediate release dipyridamole).
Use clopidogrel 75 mg od in place of aspirin or Asasantin if either drug not tolerated
(inpatient / urgent outpatient)
All carotid imaging investigations are specialised, and should be • Carotid dopplers first line, but should be arranged only with the TIA service.
• CT angio. carotids. Seek specialist advice
. Useful if dopplers non-diagnostic or
suggest carotid occlusion or stenosis close to cut-off for surgery (50-70% stenosis).
Note risk of contrast nephropathy.
• MR angiography. Seek specialist advice
. Used for above indications if CT angio
contraindicated, or for patients undergoing MRI for other reasons.
(usual y outpatient) Consider if:• Cardioembolic source possible & cardiac murmur / abnormal cardiac silhouetteCardiac rhythm monitoring
(outpatient)• 24 hour tape (or 48 hour tape) if AF suspected.
• Consider event recorder if palpitationsNeuroimaging
(inpatient / urgent outpatient)MRI with DWI is the primary brain imaging modality for the diagnosis of TIA.
Also consider imaging if:• Warfarin being considered (plain CT)• Other cause for symptoms suspected (e.g. tumour)• Dissection suspected (MRA / CTA)
CHOLESTEROL LOWERING TREATMENT
Cholesterol lowering drugs:
Simvastatin 40 mg od if chol. 3.6 and not on statin (or
on pravastatin). If on treatment & cholesterol
, increase according to cholesterol lowering effect: Simvastatin 40 mg Atorvastatin 40 mg Rosuvastatin 10 mg. Add other agents if required.
BLOOD PRESSURE LOWERING TREATMENT
Treat if BP 110 systolic and no symptoms of postural hypotension.
Start perindopril 2 mg od; 7 days later increase to 4 mg; 7 days later add indapamideMR 1.5 mg od. Subsequent increases if hypertensive. Monitor U&Es.
DRIVING, LIFESTYLE, AND OTHER ADVICE
• No driving for 1 month, or 3 months and contact DVLA if >1 event in 1 month.
Patients may resume driving after this time if clinical recovery is complete
• Patients must notify DVLA if focal neurological deficit after 1 month (note these
patients by definition have stroke not TIA).
• Vocational license / Group 2 (e.g. HGV) drivers should contact DVLA and not drive for
Refer to TIA clinic
if not admitted.
• Lifestyle advice: Smoking cessation, diet, exercise, alcohol
Acute stroke unit. Frenchay Ward 106, ext 03106 / 03934Stroke rehab unit. Southmead Ward 1, ext 35064
Jane Wroath. Tue - Fri bleep 9325. Or message via ext 35064
Dr Neil Baldwin, sec Frenchay ext 06636, sec Southmead ext 35368
Useful web sites:
Stroke information and patient support: Stroke Association: www.stroke.org.uk
Bristol Area Stroke Foundation: www.stroke-bristol.org/
National Clinical Guideline for Stroke: http://bookshop.rcplondon.ac.uk/details.aspx?e=250
NICE acute stroke and TIA guidelines: http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG68
CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Mr. Apichat Vitta Date of birth: 12-17-1978 Place of birth: Maha-Sarakham Province, Thailand Nationality: Thai Home address: 2/4, Nachuak-Porpan Road, Sub-district Nachuak, District Nachuak, Office Position: Department of Microbiology & Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand 65000 Tel : +66 05
Different OHSMS would differ in specifics but the The policy outlines the organisation’s commitment below diagram outlines the common components. to ensuring the safety and health of its workers. At the very least this includes compliance with legal requirements, commitment to the prevention of injury and ill health and the continual improvement of safety and health management and p