Microsoft word - yin chunsheng eng.doc
Yin Chunsheng Professor Shanghai Ocean University
Notice on the author Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry, Professor of Shanghai Ocean University, specialized in chemistry of the marine environment. Professor Yin has been focusing on research and teaching in analytical chemistry and marine chemistry since 2002. College of Marine Science, Shanghai Ocean University College of Marine Sciences was established in 1912, developed on the basis of fishing as one of old college with good reputation. There are Department of Fisheries, Department of Marine Resources, Department of Marine Environment and Department of Marine Information Systems Engineering. The college has several national key laboratories, such as Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries Resources Laboratory, Ocean Development and Utilization Laboratory, Offshore Fishing Institute, Marine Law and policy Institute, Remote Sensing and Information Institute and so on. The college has the Chinese offshore squid fishing technology group, tuna technology group, large-scale trawl and other national technical consulting and services groups.
Challenges and Opportunities of China's Coastal Ecosystems In the 21st century, the ecological environment is facing many challenges, among which environmental pollution has aroused special concern. With exploitation and utilization of marine resources, as well as large-scale economic construction and pollution caused by social life, the marine environment has been threatened greatly. This challenge has attracted attention of the world's major developed countries. While vigorously developing the economy, China is also very serious to this issue. A series of documents for ocean development have been released by the central and local governments, which have greatly enhanced researches on marine ecology.
I. The influence on marine ecological environment by large-scale ocean
Hundreds of square kilometers reclamation projects and other coastal engineering projects such as beach development can be easily done in coastal cities. A lot of valuable land resource is achieved by such
development, but the local coastal ecology could be completely destroyed. Since the living environment is completely changed, the migratory marine organism could extinct. Moreover, it will increase pollutions to local waters. All losses of coastal ecology call for scientific evaluation. Through researches on mathematical models and combined with current status of marine environment, we have analyzed ecological environment and fish resources, resulting from wetland encroachment and hydrodynamic changes after large-scale reclamation projects. We have discussed beach development and its effect on wetland ecosystem. From the perspective of management and planning, we have proposed theoretical basis for beach development.
II. Oil spill effects on marine ecosystems Marine oil spill has become a ghost that is unable to avoid. Every year a large number of marine oil spill incidents happen globally, which causes incalculable ecological damage and economic losses to the local ecological environment. In particular, the oil spill near the shore has the significant impact on aquaculture and leads to economic disputes. Recently, there are a number of research s focus on oil spill, including the control and reduction of the oil spill, the toxicological effects on marine life (including economic aquatic), natural degradation of oil spills and migration in marine ecosystems. To deal with these tough problems, both Chinese and international academic institutions proceed with relative researches, including basic research topics such as the physical distribution of oil migration and biochemical transformation, and technology for eliminating oil spills. Therefore, we also designed two projects: (1) sub-acute toxicity of marine treasures (sea cucumber) caused by oil spill in lights induction; (2) light degradation of oil spill under natural conditions. The former discusses sub-acute toxicity sea cucumbers caused by oil spill in different strength of light induction and its mechanism. The later mainly focuses on light degradation efficiency before and after oil dispersants.
III. Establish artificial reefs, repair and rebuild ecological environment in ocean
Artificial reef is used for establishing marine pastures, controlling and optimizing marine environment, and increasing fisheries resources. It is placed in natural waters to repair and optimize ecological environment, proliferate and trap all kinds of marine animals and improve water environment. Artificial reef can provide good habitat, shelter and spawning sites for fish, and is conducive to survival and reproduction of fish. At home and abroad, the artificial reef has been widely constructed to restore coastal marine habitat and fisheries, and achieved good results. In the "Eleventh Five-Year", two "863 "projects were implemented respectively to explore trapping mechanism and fish behavior in artificial reef ecosystem,
and address current problems of trapping technology, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the construction of China's coastal reefs. IV. Persistent organic pollution on the marine ecological environment In 2001, altogether 12 POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants, hereinafter referred to as POPs) were included in the "Stockholm Convention" as organic pollutants that need preferential control. POPs are persistent in the environment, with bioaccumulation and high toxicity, and have serious damage to human health. With long coastline and rich ocean resources, China’s estuary and adjacent waters (including wetlands) are a main destination of POPs. The estuary is very sensitive to POPs. We have focused on distribution, migration and accumulation of POPs (particularly organochlorine pesticides) in the estuaries and coastal ecosystems, and made a number of investigation and analysis on origin of POPs. Related topics include: Characteristic and Risk Assessment on Typical POPs in the Yangtze River Estuary and in fish, Persistent Organic Pollutants and Sedimentary Records in the Yangtze River Estuary and East China Sea, Accumulation and Risk Evaluation on Organochlorine Pesticides in the Yangtze River Estuary and in fish. V. Analysis on antibiotics residue in marine cultivation Currently, antibiotic abuse becomes a huge threat to mankind. In aquiculture, antibiotic is also applied in a large scale. Many antibiotic residues went into the environment, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, vinyl, quinolones, sulfonamides and nitrofuran, etc. We hope to find a new approach that can detect antibiotic residues sensitively in coastal aquaculture environment (including water, sediment and aquatic products). Analysis on antibiotic residues requires complex trace constituent techniques, since the majority of residue levels range from 1ug/Kg to 1mg/Kg, which raise high requirements for testing conditions and equipment. Recently, physical and chemical methods have replaced microorganism and became as a major research tools, including spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry, high performance capillary electrophoresis, HPLC, electrochemical method and so on. However, these methods are either low sensitivity or complex, and cannot meet the requirements of detection of trace constituent, and thus chemiluminescence method stands out, which needs only simple instruments, but is of high sensitivity. The method has unique advantage for offshore aquaculture environment research. VI. Heavy metal pollution’s long-term cumulative impact on coastal
In Chinese coastal provinces, such as three provinces in the northeast China
along the Bohai Sea, marine heavy metal pollution is very severe. Although mining industry has made huge contribution to economic development in these regions, the mineral mining and precious metal refining result in serious heavy metal marine pollution, and marine ecosystems here is also worse than other place. The main heavy metals includes zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, silver, mercury, arsenic and so on, many of which are paragenesis and association of sulfide minerals. Recently the emissions of have metals have been brought under restrict control, but the pollution on the whole is still very serious. What’s more, the migration, distribution and transformation of heave metal pollutions have the potential impact on the ecosystem, especially for aquatic organism with economic values, which need in-depth and comprehensive survey and evaluation. In brief, the direct and indirect effect of marine pollution on human is that the poisonous fish could be eaten by human being, which results in many health problems, such as minamata disease, as well as Virus infection. As mentioned above, we have shifted from passive study of marine environment to active and systematic scientific research and evaluation of human’s effect on marine ecosystem. Thus we could find a scientific solution and face the challenge of marine environment variation and its threat to human beings.
target antigens dermo-epidermal junction F (Level of evidence 1, Strength of recommendations A) F2.3.1 Azathioprine (Level of evidence 2, Strength of recommendations B) 2.3.2 Methotrexate (Level of evidence 3, Strength of recommendations C) 2.3.3 Cyclophosphamide (Level of evidence 4, Strength of recommendations C) 2.3.4 Mycophenolate mofetil (Level of evidence 2, Strength of recommendations
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