Logical framework approach
Good planning is a key element of successful MPA management. This sheet gives specific guidance on
preparing a Logical Framework Matrix, or logframe, as this planning tool is frequently required by
donors and others involved in MPA establishment and management.
With the recognition that good planning is the basis of
Describing the desired situation, which requires
good implementation and effective management, various
identifying the solutions – often called project
methodologies have been developed to assist with, and
improve this process. Donors often require plans to be
Choosing the strategy for meeting the objectives;
developed in a particular way and presented in a set
Identifying the actions to be taken and the desired
format. A specific terminology has also developed which
may vary (particularly from donor to donor), but in general
Analysing the risks or potential hindrances to success
the principles underpinning the approaches are the same.
An effective MPA manager will need to be familiar withsome of these terms and approaches, especially if s/he has
The plan, for a particular project or initiative, developed
using the above process is often summarised in a table thatis referred to as a logical framework matrix, or logframe.
The three main elements of the matrix are the impact of
Logical Framework Approach (LFA) -
the project, the project itself, and the external
developed in the 1970s, this planning process is required
Objective Oriented Project Planning (OOPP; originally
The logframe summarises the project and its context in a
called ZOPP - the German acronym) -
very similar to
logical manner, so that the connection between the
activities (sometimes known as inputs) and the expectedresults (sometimes called outputs) can be seen.
Results Based Management (RBM) or Results
Oriented Assistance (ROA) -
now being used by donors
The framework has both a vertical and a horizontal logic.
such as USAID and Canadian CIDA; it places as much
The vertical logic shows what the project intends to do,
emphasis on management, monitoring and evaluation of a
the relationships between what will done and what will be
achieved (the ‘means to the ends’), and it specifies themain risks and assumptions. The horizontal logic defines
The key points of these methods are that they:
how progress and performance will be monitored, and the
Require the participation of all key stakeholders and
those who will be involved in implementing the plan;
Are objective and/or results oriented, i.e. they focus on
OBJECTIVE HIERARCHY -
This describes the project in a
what it is to be achieved, as well as on the immediate
logical sequence which is broken down into the following
All the methods involve objective-oriented planning, which
Goal or Long Term Objective:
The expected long term
‘impact’ of the project. The Goal describes a desired
situation for the environment and/or people that the
Managing Marine Protected Areas: A TOOLKIT for the Western Indian Ocean
project will help to achieve (e.g. integrity of an ecosystem,
The following two examples illustrate how logframes may
or survival of a threatened species). Note that the project
be used in MPA development. Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary
will not itself be able to achieve this goal, it will only
Marine Park, in Tanzania, has funding through a 5-year
contribute towards it. The timeframe of the goal is usually
UNDP/GEF project to support a broad range of activities,
such as baseline assessments and preparation of amanagement plan, involved in setting up the MPA. A
Purpose (or Short-term Objective):
project logframe guides implementation of these project
conditions or behaviour that needs to be changed in order to
activities, but the Park has separate goals and objectives.
contribute to the goal. This statement is what will be
Moheli Marine Park, in the Comores, was also set up
achieved by the project (e.g. the protection of an area or
through a UNDP/GEF project, but in this case it was one
resource). The purpose usually has a time-frame of 3-5 years.
component of a much larger biodiversity project and wasone ‘Result’ of the logframe. It is thus important not to
Outputs (sometimes referred to as Results):
confuse the logframe of a project with the managemnbt
tangible products or services to be delivered, and for
which those implementing the project can be held directlyaccountable for producing (e.g. legislation enacted,
KEY POINTS FOR THE MPA
management plan produced). Outputs may have a timeframe of around a year.
❑ If a logframe is required by a donor or for a
particular project, get advice on how to prepare it.
Specific actions that must be undertaken to
❑ If a logframe is not required, use a more simple
achieve particular outputs (e.g. baseline surveys, training
planning approach, but follow similar principles
courses, staff recruitment, infrastructure development).
(e.g. use a participatory approach, identify clearmeasurable objectives and define carefully what is
The resources that are required to carry out
required to achieve them, and ensure that there is a
activities, i.e. financial, human and physical resources.
monitoring programme to measure success).
These are used to measure the extent to
which the different components of the objective hierarchy
Sources of further information
are being achieved. Indicators need careful selection (see
Kareko, J. & Siegel, P. 2003. Planning for Marine Protected Areas.
Module 2. p. 39-84. In
: Francis, J. et al.
(eds.) Training for the
Sustainable Management of Marine Protected Areas: a Training
MEANS OF VERIFICATIONS -
These include the
Manual for MPA Managers.
CZMC/UDSM, WIOMSA, The World
sources of information that will show whether the
indicators have been achieved. This column, with the
SEACAM, 1999. From a Good Idea to a Successful Project: a manual
indicators column, provides the basis for developing the
for development and management of local level projects.
monitoring and evaluation programme for the project.
Maputo, Mozambique. www.seacam.mz
RISKS AND ASSUMPTIONS -
These may affect whether
UNDP/GEF, 2002. Project Preparation Manual. Introduction to the
the objectives are achieved. A risk is an external factor
that may negatively influence the realisation of
objective(s) while an assumption is the underlying
UNEP. 2000. Project Formulation, Approval, Monitoring and
hypothesis on which the cause-effect relationship is
Evaluation Manual. Programme Coordination and Management Unit,
based. Identifying risks and assumptions helps to
UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. www.unep.org/ProjectManual/
determine what is under the direct control of MPA
Donor guidelines are available as follows:
management, what requires collaboration with others, andwhat is beyond the influence of the MPA and its
AusAID, 2000. AusGUIDELines. The Logical Framework Approach
stakeholders. An example of a risk that can be managed is
‘cooperation of local communities’. Such a risk may mean
CIDA, 2000. PRB-RBM Handbook on Developing Results Chains.
that additional project activities are required such as an
Results Based Management Division. www.acdi-cida.gc.ca
environmental education or income generation
European Community – general information on their project approach
component. Examples of unmanageable risks are the
effects of global warming, international commodity pricesand government policy.
Finland. Dept. for International Development Cooperation. Ministry
of Foreign Affairs. Guidelines for Programme Design, Monitoring &
Logframes are generally used for projects of limited
duration with a set budget. An MPA is a permanent
NORAD, 1999. The Logical Framework Approach. Handbook for
institution and, although potentially feasible, it is not
objective-oriented planning. www.norad.no
usual for an MPA management plan to be drafted in the
- provides Windows-based Project Cycle
form of a logframe. The goal and purpose or objective of a
Management software for assistance in developing logframes.
logframe is therefore unlikely to be identical to the goaland objectives of the MPA itself. However, the principlesused are useful to consider in any form of planning.
Managing Marine Protected Areas: A TOOLKIT for the Western Indian Ocean
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